Alanine glutamine, cognitive function, reaction time, prolonged exercise


Changes in physiological function occurring during a body water deficit may result in significant decrements in performance, cognitive function and fine motor control during exercise. This may be due to the magnitude of the body water deficit. Rehydration strategies are important to prevent these deleterious effects in performance. The purpose of this study was to examine the changes before and after prolonged exercise of an alanine-glutamine dipeptide (AG) on cognitive function and reaction time. Twelve male endurance-trained runners (age: 23.5 [plus or minus] 3.7 y; height: 175.5 [plus or minus] 5.4 cm; weight: 70.7 [plus or minus] 7.6 kg) participated in this study. Participants were asked to run on a treadmill at 70% of their predetermined VO2max for 1 h and then run at 90% of VO2max until volitional exhaustion on four separate days (T1-T4). T1 was a dehydration trial and T2-T4 were all different hydration modalities (electrolyte drink, electrolyte drink with a low dose of AG, electrolyte drink with a high dose of AG, respectively) where the participants drank 250 mL every 15 min. Before and after each hour run, cognitive function and reaction tests were administered. Hopkins Magnitude Based Inferences were used to analyze cognitive function and reaction time data. Results showed that physical reaction time was likely faster for the low dose trial than the high dose trial. Dehydration had a possible negative effect on the number of hits in 60-sec compared to both the low and high dose trials. Comparisons between only the electrolyte drink and the high dose ingestion appeared to be possibly negative. Analysis of lower body quickness indicates that performance in both the low and high dose trials were likely improved (decreased) in comparison to the dehydration trial. Multiple object tracking analysis indicated a possible greater performance for dehydration and low dose compared to only the electrolyte drink, while there was a likely greater performance in multiple object tracking for the high dose trial compared to consumption of the electrolyte drink only. The serial subtraction test was possibly greater in the electrolyte drink trial compared to dehydration. Rehydration with the alanine-glutamine dipeptide during an hour run at a submaximal intensity appears to maintain or enhance subsequent visual reaction time in both upper and lower body activities compared to a no hydration trial. The combination of the alanine-glutamine dipeptide may have enhanced fluid and electrolyte absorption from the gut and possibly into skeletal tissue to maintain neuromuscular performance.


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Graduation Date





Hoffman, Jay


Master of Science (M.S.)


College of Education and Human Performance


Child, Family, and Community Sciences

Degree Program

Sport and Exercise Science; Applied Exercise Physiology Track








Release Date

May 2014

Length of Campus-only Access


Access Status

Masters Thesis (Open Access)


Dissertations, Academic -- Education and Human Performance; Education and Human Performance -- Dissertations, Academic