Standards for mathematical practice, common core state standards for mathematics, smp3, communication, mathematical arguments, teaching methods


The researcher in this case study sought to determine the ways in which teachers support their students to create viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others (SMP3). In order to achieve this goal, the self-conceived classroom roles of two teachers, one experienced and one novice, were elicited and then compared to their actualized roles observed in the classroom. Both teachers were provided with professional development focused on supporting student engagement in SMP3. This professional development was informed by the guidelines that describe the behaviors students should exhibit as they are engaged in the standards for mathematical practice contained in the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics. The teachers were observed, video recorded, and interviewed during and immediately after the professional development. A final observation was performed four weeks after the PD. The marked differences in the teachers' characteristics depicted in each case added to the robustness of the results of the study. A cross-case analysis was performed in order to gauge how the novice and experienced teachers' roles compared and contrasted with each other. The comparison of the teachers' self-perception and their actual roles in the classroom indicated that they were not supporting their students as they thought they were. The analysis yielded specific ways in which novice and experienced teachers might support their students. Furthermore, the cross-case analysis established the support that teachers are able to provide to students depends on (a) teaching experience, (b) teacher content and pedagogical knowledge, (c) questioning, (d) awareness of communication, (e) teacher expectations, and (f) classroom management. Study results provide implications regarding the kinds of support teachers might need given their teaching experience and mathematics content knowledge as they attempt to motivate their students to engage in SMP3.


If this is your thesis or dissertation, and want to learn how to access it or for more information about readership statistics, contact us at

Graduation Date





Dixon, Juli


Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.)


College of Education and Human Performance

Degree Program

Education; Math Education Track








Release Date

November 2017

Length of Campus-only Access

3 years

Access Status

Doctoral Dissertation (Campus-only Access)


Dissertations, Academic -- Education and Human Performance; Education and Human Performance -- Dissertations, Academic