This study examines the influence of local and dominant Network Systems on the socio- economic development of the southern Black Sea colonies: Heraclea Pontica, Sinope, and Tios during the Archaic and Classical Period. I argue that archeological and literary evidence indicate that local (populations such as the Mariandynoi, Syrians, Caucones, Paphlagonians, and Tibarenians) and dominant external (including: Miletus, Megara/Boeotia, Athens, and Persia) socio-economic Network systems developed and shaped these three colonies, and helped explain their role in the overarching Black Sea Network.

This study is divided into three chapters. Chapter one starts with the history and historiography of Greek colonization. This leads into an explanation of early Black Sea colonization and a brief history of Heraclea, Sinope, and Tios from their foundation in the Archaic period until their transition into the Roman provincial system. It then explains Network Theory and Middle Ground and how they will be utilized in chapters two and three. The second chapter uses a middle ground approach to analyze local networks and their influence on the socio-economic development of the three colonies. The second chapter primarily utilizes material evidence and literary sources such as Strabo and Xenophon to draw these conclusions. The third chapter examines the effect that the dominant network systems during these periods have on the colonies' socio-economic development. This chapter primarily focuses on the Black Sea, Athens, and Persia's networks and their interactions with the colonies. Ultimately, this project furthers the current understanding of Heraclea, Sinope, Tios and the Black Sea's economic development as a whole.

Thesis Completion




Thesis Chair

Dandrow, Edward


Bachelor of Arts (B.A.)


College of Arts and Humanities



Degree Program




Access Status

Campus Access

Length of Campus-only Access

1 year

Release Date