Medical simulation, animatronics, military training, first responder training, tourniquet training


Army first responders, specifically Combat Medics and Combat Lifesavers, provide medical intervention while in the field. Didactic as well as hands-on training helps to prepare these first responders, and one module they receive involves bleeding control. First responders are taught to use the Combat Application Tourniquet® (CAT® ) to stop bleeding from limbs subjected to severe injury such as amputation, gunshot, or severe lacerations. A training aid like the Multiple Amputee Trauma Trainer™ (MATT™) simulator provides tourniquet training using a lifelike bilateral lower limb amputee. In addition, MATT™ combines movement and resistance while the first responder applies the tourniquet, mimicking conditions one would see in a real situation. This research describes tourniquet history, appropriate usage, field tourniquet review, surgical tourniquet, CAT® bleeding intervention procedures, bleeding physiology and complications, prehospital tourniquet use in recent conflicts, medical simulation fidelity, and a review of the value of animatronic movement during tourniquet simulation-based training. I then evaluate the effectiveness of animatronic movement during tourniquet training using the Advanced MATT in an experiment using Army first responders. The control group experienced no movement while the experimental group experienced movement when applying a tourniquet during the lab-training. Each group then alternately experienced Advanced MATT movement during an immersive scenario along with fog, strobe lights, and battle sounds. It was hypothesized that 1) In the immersive scenario, the experimental groups (i.e., those who were trained on a moving simulator) would have a faster reaction time as compared to those participants who did not receive training on the moving Advanced MATT simulator; 2) In the iv lab-based training, the experimental groups would have a slower reaction time; 3) In the immersive scenario, the experimental groups would have a faster tourniquet application time when subjected to movement while in the lab-based training, but the experimental groups would also have a slower tourniquet application time when initially subjected to movement in the laboratory-based training; finally, 4, 5, and 6) Participants who completed lab-based tourniquet training on the Advanced MATT simulation with animatronic movement would report higher perceived realism scores than participants who complete the training on a static version of the Advanced MATT and participants who completed a tourniquet training immersive scenario on the Advanced MATT simulation with movement would report higher perceived realism, presence, and self-efficacy scores than participants who complete the training on a static version of the Advanced MATT. The empirical results show a significant overall training effect of the Advanced MATT simulator (with or without movement). For reaction time and tourniquet application time, involving simulator movement was significant over varying scenarios. A small reduction in reaction and tourniquet application time on the battlefield may be extremely beneficial on the battlefield. Participants who received movement generally gave more positive reactions than those who did not received movement, although these results failed to reach statistical significance. Participants who received movement, followed by a scenario without movement rated the subjective ratings the lowest, suggestive of the lack of movement. Furthermore, despite the order movement was received, no large drops in performance occurred in any condition, indicating that negative training was avoided


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Graduation Date





Kincaid, J. Peter


Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.)


College of Sciences



Degree Program

Modeling and Simulation








Release Date

June 2012

Length of Campus-only Access


Access Status

Doctoral Dissertation (Open Access)


Dissertations, Academic -- Sciences, Sciences -- Dissertations, Academic

Included in

Psychology Commons