Benzotriazole, Chemical mechanical planarization (CMP), Copper, Glycine, Hydrogen peroxide, X ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS)


Advances in the interconnection technology have played a key role in the continued improvement of the integrated circuit (IC) density, performance and cost. Copper (Cu) metallization, dual damascenes processing and integration of copper with low dielectric constant material are key issues in the IC industries. Chemical mechanical planarization of copper (CuCMP) has emerged as an important process for the manufacturing of ICs. Usually, Cu-CMP process consists of several steps such as the removal of surface layer by mechanical action of the pad and the abrasive particles, the dissolution of the abraded particles in the CMP solution, and the protection of the recess areas. The CMP process occurs at the atomic level at the pad/slurry/wafer interface, and hence, slurries and polishing pads play critical role in its successful implementation. The slurry for the Cu-CMP contains chemical components to facilitate the oxidation and removal of excess Cu as well as passivation of the polished surface. During the process, these slurry chemicals also react with the pad. In the present study, investigations were carried out to understand the effect of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as an oxidant and benzotriazole (BTA) as an inhibitor on the CMP of Cu. Interaction of these slurry components on copper has been investigated using electrochemical studies, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS). In the presence of 0.1M glycine, Cu removal rate was found to be high in the solution containing 5% H2O2 at pH 2 because of the Cu-glycine complexation reaction. The dissolution rate of the Cu was found to increase due to the formation of highly soluble Cu-glycine complex in the presence of H2O2. Addition of 0.01M BTA in the solution containing 0.1M glycine and 5% H2O2 at pH 2 exhibited a reduction in the Cu removal rate due to the formation of Cu-BTA complex on the surface of the Cu further inhibiting the dissolution. XPS and SIMS investigations revealed the formation of such Cu-glycine complex, which help understand the mechanism of the Cu-oxidant-inhibitor interaction during polishing. Along with the slurry, pads used in the Cu-CMP process have direct influence an overall process. To overcome problems associated with the current pads, new application specific pad (ASP) have been developed in collaboration with PsiloQuest Inc. Using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) process; surface of such ASP pads were modified. Plasma treatment of a polymer surface results in the formation of various functional groups and radicals. Post plasma treatment such as chemical reduction or oxidation imparts a more uniform distribution of such functional groups on the surface of the polymer resulting in unique surface properties. The mechanical properties of such coated pad have been investigated using nanoindentation technique in collaboration with Dr. Vaidyanathan’s research group. The surface morphology and the chemistry of the ASP are studied using scanning electron microcopy (SEM), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) to understand the formation of different chemical species on the surface. It is observed that the mechanical and the chemical properties of the pad top surface are a function of the PECVD coating time. Such PECVD treated pads are found to be hydrophilic and do not require being stored in aqueous medium during the not-in-use period. The metal removal rate using such surface modified polishing pad is found to increase linearly with the PECVD coating time. Overall, this thesis is an attempt to optimize the two most important parameters of the Cu-CMP process viz. slurry and pads for enhanced performance and ultimately reduce the cost of ownership (CoO).


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Graduation Date





Seal, Sudipta


Master of Science (M.S.)


College of Engineering and Computer Science


Mechanical, Materials, and Aerospace Engineering

Degree Program

Mechanical, Materials and Aerospace Engineering








Release Date

January 2007

Length of Campus-only Access


Access Status

Masters Thesis (Open Access)


Dissertations, Academic -- Engineering and Computer Science; Engineering and Computer Science -- Dissertations, Academic

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Engineering Commons