Mri, magnetic resonance imaging, magnetic field, induction heating, laser diffusion, beam shaping


Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become one of the premier non-invasive diagnostic tools, with around 60 million MRI scans applied each year. However, there is a risk of thermal injury due to radiofrequency (RF) induction heating of the tissue and implanted metallic device for the patients with the implanted metallic devices. Especially, MRI of the patients with implanted elongated devices such as pacemakers and deep brain stimulation systems is considered contraindicated. Many efforts, such as determining preferred MRI parameters, modifying magnetic field distribution, designing new structure and exploring new materials, have been made to reduce the induction heating. Improving the MRI-compatibility of implanted metallic devices by modifying the properties of the existing materials would be valuable. To evaluate the temperature rise due to RF induction heating on a metallic implant during MRI procedure, an electromagnetic model and thermal model are studied. The models consider the shape of RF magnetic pulses, interaction of RF pulses with metal plate, thermal conduction inside the metal and the convection at the interface between the metal and the surroundings. Transient temperature variation and effects of heat transfer coefficient, reflectivity and MRI settings on the temperature change are studied. Laser diffusion is applied to some titanium sheets for a preliminary study. An electromagnetic and thermal model is developed to choose the proper diffusant. Pt is the diffusant in this study. An electromagnetic model is also developed based on the principles of inverse problems to calculate the electromagnetic properties of the metals from the measured magnetic transmittance. iv This model is used to determine the reflectivity, dielectric constant and conductivity of treated and as-received Ti sheets. The treated Ti sheets show higher conductivity than the as-received Ti sheets, resulting higher reflectivity. A beam shaping lens system which is designed based on vector diffraction theory is used in laser diffusion. Designing beam shaping lens based on the vector diffraction theory offers improved irradiance profile and new applications such as polarized beam shaping because the polarization nature of laser beams is considered. Laser Pt diffusion are applied on the titanium and tantalum substrates using different laser beam polarizations. The concentration of Pt and oxygen in those substrates are measured using Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDS). The magnetic transmittance and conductivity of those substrates are measured as well. The effects of laser beam polarizations on Pt diffusion and the magnetic transmittance and conductivity of those substrates are studied. Treated Ti sheets show lower magnetic transmittance due to the increased conductivity from diffused Pt atoms. On the other hand, treated Ta sheets show higher magnetic transmittance due to reduced conductivity from oxidation. Linearly polarized light can enhance the Pt diffusion because of the excitation of local vibration mode of atoms. Laser Pt diffusion and thermo-treatment were applied on the Ta and MP35N wires. The Pt concentration in laser platinized Ta and MP35N wires was determined using EDS. The ultimate tensile strength, fatigue lives and lead tip heating in real MRI environment of those wires were measured. The lead tip hating of the platinized Ta wires is 42 % less than the as-received Ta wire. The diffused Pt increases the conductivity of Ta wires, resulting in more reflection of magnetic field. In the case of the platinized MP35N wire, the reduction in lead tip heating was only 1 °C v due to low concentration of Pt. The weaker ultimate tensile strength and shorter fatigue lives of laser-treated Ta and MP35N wires may attribute to the oxidation and heating treatment.


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Graduation Date





Kar, Aravinda


Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.)


College of Optics and Photonics


Optics and Photonics

Degree Program









Release Date


Length of Campus-only Access

5 years

Access Status

Doctoral Dissertation (Open Access)


Dissertations, Academic -- Optics and Photonics, Optics and Photonics -- Dissertations, Academic