Live simulation, training, hpt, human performance technology, modeling, simulation, affective variables, loc, locus of control, westerlund, imt, immersion tendencies


Live simulations play an important role in allowing users to practice and develop skills they learn in training. Although live simulations are playing an increasingly important role in training, ways to improve them are not well understood or documented. In order to improve the efficacy of live simulation and maximize results from funds spent on training; this research examines the relationship between the affective variables of the participants and their performance in the live simulation. Prior to participating in the instructor development live simulation used in this study two training preference scales were administered to a group of trainees. These scales measured the trainees’ locus of control and immersion tendencies. During the live simulation the trainees’ performance was evaluated by a panel of expert observers. The trainees also self-reported their performance through the use of a self-rating instrument. Analysis of the data revealed significant positive correlations between the trainees’ internal locus of control and their performance in the simulation, both self-reported (p=0.026) and as reported by the expert observers (p=0.033). The correlation between immersion tendency scores and performance in the live simulation were mixed; while not always statistically significant they did reveal some slight positive correlation. This research did provide a number of lessons learned and implications for instructional and simulation developers wishing to employ live simulation in a training environment. These include performance of sub-populations within the greater population of subjects, consideration of roles assigned to participants, and the need to increase presence within the live simulation. Application of these lessons learned can reduce training costs and/or improve the effectiveness of live simulation in a training environment, this in turn can be of significant benefit to instructional and simulation designers. Additionally, understanding these relationships can lead iv to better assignments of roles or activities within live simulation and improve the transfer of experience from live simulation training to on the job performance. However, additional research needs to be conducted in order to make more conclusive statements regarding the most appropriate affective variable that would allow for predicting transfer of the simulated experience to the ‘real’ world, the individuals who would benefit most from live simulation, and to develop additional prescriptive methods for improving live simulation utilized in training environments.


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Graduation Date





Kincaid, J. Peter


Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.)


College of Engineering and Computer Science


Industrial Engineering and Management Systems

Degree Program

Modeling and Simulation








Release Date

August 2013

Length of Campus-only Access


Access Status

Doctoral Dissertation (Open Access)


Dissertations, Academic -- Engineering and Computer Science, Engineering and Computer Science -- Dissertations, Academic

Included in

Engineering Commons