capacitance-voltage, ZnO capacitors, deep depletion


The main objective of the research was the fabrication and characterization of MOS/MIS capacitors with ZnO as the insulating layer. Comparison with the already well known behavior of MOS/MIS capacitors with SiO2 as insulator was used to facilitate determination of the ZnO characteristics. Moreover, thermal annealing of the samples led to increased understanding of the role of defects on the dielectric properties of the ZnO layers in the MOS/MIS devices. Hall-effect transport measurements and x-ray diffraction (XRD) spectroscopy are used to analyze the structure and electronic surface characteristics of the ZnO insulator. Capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurements are used to understand the effect of surface interface charges and fixed oxide charges in the MOS/MIS (metal-oxide (insulator)-semiconductor) capacitor. The results of the Hall-effect measurement will reveal several things; the sheet resistance, carrier concentration, and mobility as well as confirm the type of silicon used. The optical spectrophotometry measurement confirmed the band gap of 3.2 eV for ZnO. The x-ray diffraction data confirmed a (002) orientation polycrystalline wurtzite ZnO structure. Initial capacitance-voltage measurement of SiO2 and ZnO revealed that the capacitance was larger for SiO2 than for ZnO. This study also explores the impact of thermal annealing on the performance of the ZnO capacitors. Hall-effect measurements are used to evaluate the influence of thermal annealing on the resistivity, carrier concentration and mobility as a function of annealing temperature. ZnO is an n-type semiconductor; this n-type conductivity is due to deviations from the stoichiometry as a result of oxygen vacancies and interstitial zinc. After ZnO samples were annealed at different temperatures, the Hall-effect measurements were performed. After thermal annealing, the mobility increased significantly by two orders of magnitude, but both the carrier concentration and the sheet density decreased. A threshold voltage (turn-on) of -1V was observed for the ZnO sample annealed at 980oC. ZnO is very versatile material with the potential for use in field effect transistors, solar cells, sensors, surface acoustic wave devices and photodiodes due to the high conductivity and high transmittance in the visible part of the spectrum. ZnO as an insulator works through analytical solutions, but not necessarily through this investigation. The difference in oxide thickness during rf magentron sputtering change the capacitance for ZnO making it lower. For n-type substrates it appears that the capacitance after annealing was higher than the capacitance before annealing. After annealing, a stretched out capacitance-voltage curve indicates the presence of trapped oxide charges and an unsmoothed surface. A high resistivity material could be used for some devices. However, typically low resistivity materials are used. After ZnO samples were annealed (unetched) at different temperatures, the Hall-effect were performed and the mobility increased significantly by two orders of magnitude, but the sheet density decreased along with the carrier concentration. The only sample that appears to come to a high frequency C-V in equilibrium is the ZnO sample annealed at 980oC. The depletion region was distinguishable and the transition point (threshold voltage) was found to be at -1 V.


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Graduation Date





Del Barco, Enrique


Master of Science (M.S.)


College of Sciences



Degree Program









Release Date

April 2008

Length of Campus-only Access


Access Status

Masters Thesis (Open Access)

Included in

Physics Commons