ferrate, disinfection, dissolved organic carbon, wastewater, trihalomethanes, Econlockhatchee River


Ferrate (VI) has been studied as an alternative chemical to disinfect water and wastewater in recent years. The disinfection effectiveness of two different wet oxidation ferrate (VI) synthesis formulas in wastewater and Econlockhatchee River water was evaluated. Ferrate (VI) is synthesized by addition of ferric chloride to a mixture of sodium hydroxide and calcium hypochlorite (refer to U.S. Patent 6,790,429). One ferrate (VI) synthesis formula uses below the stoichiometric requirement of hypochlorite (Low Chlorine Formula) while the other ferrate (VI) synthesis formula uses more than the stoichiometric requirement of hypochlorite (Standard Chlorine Formula). For applications requiring low chlorine residual effluent quality, the Low Chlorine Formula intuitively is a more suitable disinfectant than the Standard Formula. For applications where chlorine residual is of little or no significance, the Standard Formula is logically a more suitable disinfectant due to lower production cost and production of higher ferrate (VI) concentrations than the Low Chlorine Formula. The total chlorine concentration, unfiltered and filtered ferrate (VI) concentration, and dissolved organic carbon concentration before and after treatment using both ferrate (VI) formulas in wastewater and Econ River water was measured at a contact time of 30 minutes. Disinfection capabilities were measured by comparing the quantity of Heterotrophic bacteria, Total Coliform, Escherichia coli, and Enterococcus bacteria pre-ferrate (VI) to post-ferrate (VI) at dosages of 2, 4, and 7.5 mg/L as ferrate (VI) using both ferrate (VI) formulas. The rate of disappearance of both ferrate (VI) formulas in wastewater at an unadjusted pH and pH of 6.0-6.35 was determined. In addition the total oxidant absorbance and total chlorine concentration were measured over a 30-minute period. Both ferrate (VI) formulas were effective at inactivating Total Coliform, E. Coli, Enterococcus, and heterotrophic bacteria at a 30-minute contact time and lowering DOC concentrations in Econlockhatchee River water and secondary wastewater. The Standard Formula demonstrated better disinfection at lower dosages than the Low Chlorine Formula. In both ferrate (VI) formulas, there was a presence of an instantaneous demand of ferrate (VI) and a first-order reaction rate of ferrate (VI) over 30 minutes. The chlorine residual of 7.5 mg/L ferrate (VI) dose in wastewater at a 30-minute contact time was 0.2 to 0.6 mg/L Cl2 for the Low Chlorine Formula and 0.8 to 1.4 mg/L Cl2 for the Standard Formula. These experiments indicate that both ferrate (VI) formulas can serve as effective environmentally friendly disinfectants for wastewater and Econ River water.


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Graduation Date



Reinhart, Debra


Master of Science in Environmental Engineering (M.S.Env.E.)


College of Engineering and Computer Science


Civil and Environmental Engineering

Degree Program

Environmental Engineering








Release Date

May 2009

Length of Campus-only Access


Access Status

Masters Thesis (Open Access)