Presence, Performance, Teleoperation, Simulation, Virtual Environment


The purpose of simulation is to avoid reality-based constraints by the implemen-tation of a synthetic model. Based on this advantage, interactive simulations have conquered all areas of applications from acquisition, and training, to research. Simulation results are transferred in many ways into reality and conclusions are drawn from the simulation to the application. Many anecdotal observations on human-in-the-loop simulations have shown a significant difference in actor behavior between simulations and reality-based applications. It seems that the factors that makes simulation so attractive, namely the absence of constraints and especially of imminent danger for persons and equipment, influence the behavior and thereby the performance of the user. These differences between simulation and reality may lead to false conclusions based on simulation results. The concept of perceiving a simulation as real and of being in the simulation is called sense of presence. This psychological construct can also be described as level of disbelief towards the simulation. Hence, differences in behavior are based on such users assessment of a simulation and subsequently are supposed to be mediated by a difference in presence. This research established significant differences in presence and performance between a simulation and a miniature-world teleoperation task. Presence and performance changed in identical tasks due to the application type and the connected danger to the robot. Also, the results supported a negative relationship between presence and performance: presence increased in the miniature-world and affected performance so that performance decreased. The causal relationship of application type→ presence→ performance was established and demands the examination of simulation based results with respect to the perceived danger to equipment, before they are transferred into the real application.


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Graduation Date



Malone, Linda


Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.)


College of Engineering and Computer Science


Industrial Engineering and Management Systems

Degree Program

Industrial Engineering








Release Date

May 2009

Length of Campus-only Access


Access Status

Doctoral Dissertation (Open Access)

Restricted to the UCF community until May 2009; it will then be open access.