Resistance exercise eliciting muscle damage results in an immune response, leading to increases in circulating cytokines, and immune cell mobilization. Classical monocytes respond to muscle damage, however, little is known about the intermediate or nonclassical monocyte response to resistance exercise. Moreover, the impact of polyphenol supplementation in conjunction with resistance exercise on the innate immune response is unknown. The purpose of this study was to examine the immune response following resistance exercise with (PPB) and without (PL) polyphenol supplementation. Thirty-nine untrained men were randomized into three groups: PPB (n=13, 21.8±2.5yrs, 171.2±5.5cm, 71.2±8.2kg), PL (n=15, 21.6±2.5yrs, 176.5±4.9cm, 84.0±15.7kg) or a control group (CON) (23.3±4.1yrs, 173.6±12.0cm, 77.8±15.6kg). Blood samples were obtained pre- (PRE), immediately- (IP), 1- (1H), 5- (5H), 24- (24H), 48- (48H) and 96- (96H) hours postexercise (PPB/PL). CON rested for one hour between PRE and IP blood draws. Changes in granulocyte and monocyte subset proportions and adhesion characteristics (CD11b) were assessed via flow cytometry, while plasma cytokine concentrations and markers of muscle damage were analyzed via multiplex and spectrophotometric assays, respectively. Creatine Kinase and myoglobin were elevated at each time point for PPB and PL (p < 0.050). Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 was significantly elevated at IP in PPB (p = 0.005) and PL (p = 0.006) and significantly greater than CON at 5H (PPB: p < 0.001; PL: p = 0.006). Granulocyte proportions were elevated at 1H (p < 0.001), 5H (p < 0.001) and 24H (p = 0.005; p = 0.006) in PPB and PL, respectively. Classical monocyte proportions were lower in PPB (p = 0.008) and PL (p = 0.003) than CON at IP, and significantly greater than CON at 1H (PPB: p = 0.002; PL: p = 0.006). Nonclassical monocyte proportions were significantly greater in PPB (p = 0.020) and PL (p = 0.028) than CON at IP. Intermediate monocyte proportions were significantly greater in PPB (p = 0.034) and PL (p = 0.001) than CON at IP, and significantly lower than CON at 1H (PPB: p = 0.003; PL: p = 0.008). Intermediate monocyte proportions were also significantly greater in PPB than CON at 24H (p = 0.016) and 48H (p = 0.007). At PRE, CD11b expression was significantly lower in the PPB group than CON and PL for intermediate (p = 0.017; p = 0.045) and nonclassical (p < 0.001, p = 0.019) monocytes, respectively. When groups were combined, CD11b expression was significantly elevated from PRE at IP (p < 0.001) and 1H (p = 0.015) on granulocytes. CD11b expression on classical monocytes was significantly elevated compared to PRE at 1H (p < 0.001), 5H (p = 0.033) and 24H (p = 0.004) when groups were combined. CD11b expression on intermediate monocytes was significantly elevated compared to PRE at 1H (p < 0.001) when groups were combined. Intermediate and nonclassical monocyte proportions also showed significant positive correlations with markers of muscle damage (r = 0.361 to 0.775, p < 0.05). Results indicated that resistance exercise in novice lifters may elicit a selective mobilization of intermediate monocytes at 24h and 48H, and that muscle damage may be related to increases in intermediate and nonclassical monocytes. In addition, polyphenol supplementation appeared to suppress CD11b expression on monocytes to resistance exercise.


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Graduation Date





Hoffman, Jay


Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.)


College of Education and Human Performance

Degree Program

Education; Exercise Physiology









Release Date

May 2019

Length of Campus-only Access

3 years

Access Status

Doctoral Dissertation (Open Access)