Team cohesion has been clearly established in the literature as an essential component of effective work teams, yet little research has been conducted in regard to what factors lead to cohesion within a restaurant management team. What is currently known about the antecedents of cohesion indicates that it emerges from individual team member attitudes and perceptions as a collective property of the team. This, in turn, suggests cohesion is influenced by the dispositional traits of team members. The core evaluations construct, which represents a model of dispositional traits existing within each individual at the most basic level, offers implications for the emergence of cohesion in both of its forms, task cohesion and social cohesion. To help bridge the gap in prior research, this study was conducted to investigate the influence of core evaluations on team cohesion within restaurant management teams. This study first adopted and modified Judge et al.'s (1997) theoretical model of core evaluations, advancing a model in which two types of core evaluations, self and external, were both second-order latent constructs each reflected by four first-order evaluative traits. The proposed trait structure was then tested. Finally, drawing on approach/avoidance theory and social exchange theory, this study hypothesized a multilevel model in which the dispositional traits of core self-evaluation (CSE) and core external-evaluation (CEE) at the individual front-line manager level have positive effects on task and social cohesion within restaurant management teams. To accomplish the objectives of this study, a survey research design was employed. The survey instrument was comprised of four sections: core self-evaluation, core external-evaluation, team cohesion, and demographic profile. Data were collected from managers employed by four restaurant franchise groups, resulting in a useable sample of 317 individual responses composing 76 teams ranging in size from 2-6 members. Confirmatory factor analysis was conducted to test the factor structure of CSE and CEE, as well as the overall measurement model. The task and social cohesion items were then aggregated to the team level and multilevel structural equation modeling (MSEM) was conducted to test the relationships between latent constructs. The results of this study supported the second-order factor structure of core evaluations. CSE was shown to be reflected by self-esteem, generalized self-efficacy, emotional stability, and locus of control. CEE was shown to be reflected by belief in a benevolent world, belief in a just world, and belief in people. Due to sample size, a reduced-parameter model was developed in which CSE and CEE were treated as sub-dimensions and measured by mean scores. MSEM results from this model showed that CSE had significant positive effect on team task cohesion whereas CEE had a significant positive effect on team social cohesion. These results offer numerous theoretical and practical implications for the study of core evaluations, team cohesion, and micro-macro phenomena, which are discussed in the final chapter. Limitations and suggestions for future research are also discussed.

Graduation Date





Pizam, Abraham


Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.)


Rosen College of Hospitality Management

Degree Program

Hospitality Management









Release Date


Length of Campus-only Access

3 years

Access Status

Doctoral Dissertation (Open Access)


Rosen College of Hospitality Management