The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between the content of specific targeted feedback and student achievement and to identify student and teacher knowledge voids from the content of feedback in relationship to achievement level outcomes. This study aimed to deeply analyze the effects of specific targeted feedback as researched by Rafalski (2015). De-identified data from a purposive sample of Rafalski's (2015) original study were selected from a large urban school district in Central Florida as well as student achievement level outcome data from the 2013-2014 Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test 2.0 (FCAT 2.0). Raw observation data were used to determine the content of the feedback and analyzed with statistical tests to identify if relationships existed between the feedback content and student achievement. The observation data came from the 2013-2014 Marzano protocol used in the large urban school district in this study. Data were coded from a rubric created to determine the categories and charges of specific targeted feedback. Descriptive statistics were calculated to identify frequencies in the data, and Pearson's r was used to calculate correlations between the categories and charges of feedback coded and the average student achievement level outcomes for FCAT 2.0 assessments for each teacher in the study. Data from frequency calculations showed areas in which elements scored, feedback categories, and feedback charge were heaviest and lacking. Correlations showed areas in which statistically significant relationships occurred and did not occur. From these data it was determined that in terms of supporting level 1 and level 2 students, teachers did not receive much feedback in areas of building student relationships, and probing low expectancy students. Teachers also received predominantly neutral feedback and feedback that contained coaching tips. The validity and relevancy of the feedback was beyond the scope of this study. Correlational data showed both positive and negative relationships between elements coded and student achievement level outcomes as well as feedback categories and student achievement level outcomes. There were no statistically significant relationships between the charge of feedback and student achievement data.


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Graduation Date





Murray, Barbara A.


Doctor of Education (Ed.D.)


College of Education and Human Performance


Teaching, Learning, and Leadership

Degree Program

Educational Leadership; Executive









Release Date

August 2016

Length of Campus-only Access


Access Status

Doctoral Dissertation (Open Access)

Included in

Education Commons