Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) have been greatly improved and successfully commercialized over the past few decades owing to their ability to provide both mode and current confinement that enables low energy consumption, high efficiency and high modulation speed. However, further improvement of oxide VCSELs is limited by the nature of the oxide aperture because of self-heating, internal strain and difficulties in precise size control. In this dissertation, VCSELs using lithographic approach are demonstrated to overcome the limitations of oxide VCSELs, in which an intra-cavity phase shifting mesa is applied to define the device size and provide optical mode and electrical current confinement instead of an oxide aperture. A newly developed model of intrinsic modulation response is proposed and analyzed to focus on the thermal limit of the modulation speed of VCSELs. The results show that both the temperature dependent differential gain and stimulated emission rate impact laser speed and the stimulated emission rate dominates the speed limit. Thermal limits of modulation response are compared for oxide and lithographic VCSELs for various sizes. The results predict that the intrinsic modulation response can be significantly increased by using lithographic VCSELs due to low thermal resistance and reduced mode volume while maintaining high efficiency. The intrinsic bandwidth could exceed 100 GHz for a 2-?m-diameter lithographic VCSEL. Combined with low electrical parasitics, it is expected to produce over 100 Gb/s data rate from a single directly modulated laser. VCSELs designed for high speed are discussed and their characteristics are demonstrated.
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Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.)
College of Optics and Photonics
Optics and Photonics
Optics and Photonics
Length of Campus-only Access
Doctoral Dissertation (Open Access)
Li, Mingxin, "Intrinsic Modulation Response Modeling and Analysis for Lithographic Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers" (2016). Electronic Theses and Dissertations. 5204.