Speaker Recognition, Vector Quantization, Data Fusion, Pattern Recognition


Speaker Identification (SI) approaches based on discriminative Vector Quantization (VQ) and data fusion techniques are presented in this dissertation. The SI approaches based on Discriminative VQ (DVQ) proposed in this dissertation are the DVQ for SI (DVQSI), the DVQSI with Unique speech feature vector space segmentation for each speaker pair (DVQSI-U), and the Adaptive DVQSI (ADVQSI) methods. The difference of the probability distributions of the speech feature vector sets from various speakers (or speaker groups) is called the interspeaker variation between speakers (or speaker groups). The interspeaker variation is the measure of template differences between speakers (or speaker groups). All DVQ based techniques presented in this contribution take advantage of the interspeaker variation, which are not exploited in the previous proposed techniques by others that employ traditional VQ for SI (VQSI). All DVQ based techniques have two modes, the training mode and the testing mode. In the training mode, the speech feature vector space is first divided into a number of subspaces based on the interspeaker variations. Then, a discriminative weight is calculated for each subspace of each speaker or speaker pair in the SI group based on the interspeaker variation. The subspaces with higher interspeaker variations play more important roles in SI than the ones with lower interspeaker variations by assigning larger discriminative weights. In the testing mode, discriminative weighted average VQ distortions instead of equally weighted average VQ distortions are used to make the SI decision. The DVQ based techniques lead to higher SI accuracies than VQSI. DVQSI and DVQSI-U techniques consider the interspeaker variation for each speaker pair in the SI group. In DVQSI, speech feature vector space segmentations for all the speaker pairs are exactly the same. However, each speaker pair of DVQSI-U is treated individually in the speech feature vector space segmentation. In both DVQSI and DVQSI-U, the discriminative weights for each speaker pair are calculated by trial and error. The SI accuracies of DVQSI-U are higher than those of DVQSI at the price of much higher computational burden. ADVQSI explores the interspeaker variation between each speaker and all speakers in the SI group. In contrast with DVQSI and DVQSI-U, in ADVQSI, the feature vector space segmentation is for each speaker instead of each speaker pair based on the interspeaker variation between each speaker and all the speakers in the SI group. Also, adaptive techniques are used in the discriminative weights computation for each speaker in ADVQSI. The SI accuracies employing ADVQSI and DVQSI-U are comparable. However, the computational complexity of ADVQSI is much less than that of DVQSI-U. Also, a novel algorithm to convert the raw distortion outputs of template-based SI classifiers into compatible probability measures is proposed in this dissertation. After this conversion, data fusion techniques at the measurement level can be applied to SI. In the proposed technique, stochastic models of the distortion outputs are estimated. Then, the posteriori probabilities of the unknown utterance belonging to each speaker are calculated. Compatible probability measures are assigned based on the posteriori probabilities. The proposed technique leads to better SI performance at the measurement level than existing approaches.


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Graduation Date





Mikhael, Wasfy


Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.)


College of Engineering and Computer Science


Electrical and Computer Engineering

Degree Program

Electrical Engineering








Release Date

January 2010

Length of Campus-only Access


Access Status

Doctoral Dissertation (Open Access)