It is a general policy in the hotel industry that all the service should be provided in the friendly and a professional manner. The first smile of a front desk clerk or a wait staff can make a difference in customer satisfaction and loyalty. A service quality is becoming more important with increase of competitiveness among hotels and hotel brands. A process of regulating positive emotions for an organization is called Emotional Labor (EL) (Grandey, 2000). While essential for the hospitality industry, empirical research on EL is very limited, and research on EL during stressful situations is almost nonexistent. To reduce the gap in the prior research, this study is looking into dynamics of a perceived organizational and customer (in) justice as a stress factor on an employee's EL and subsequent job satisfaction. To further understand dynamics of the proposed model, variables such as a gender and intensity of interaction were used as moderating effects. This study extended research done by Spencer and Rupp (2006, 2009) on employees' perceived customer injustice and its effects on employees' EL. This study drew on fairness, effective events, referent cognition, social exchange and action theories to explain why individuals' EL is impacted by injustice extended by guests and organization. Four types of organizational justice (procedural, distributive, interpersonal and informational) were used in this research. The results of the study indicated that employees EL (effort, dissonance) increases with increased effects of distributive (in) justice. EL dissonance had a significant negative effect on job satisfaction and EL effort had a significant positive effect on a job satisfaction. Finally, procedural (in) justice and informational (in) justice had a higher effects on male employees rather than their female counterparts. Since this study is first to explore effects of four facets of organizational (in) justice on employees EL, job satisfaction and gender as moderating effects, this study offers multiple theoretical and managerial implication for evaluation of EL and its antecedents in the hospitality industry.


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Graduation Date





Pizam, Abraham


Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.)


Rosen College of Hospitality Management

Degree Program

Hospitality Management









Release Date

August 2021

Length of Campus-only Access

5 years

Access Status

Doctoral Dissertation (Open Access)


Rosen College of Hospitality Management