Crash frequency analysis is a crucial tool to investigate traffic safety problems. With the objective of revealing hazardous factors which would affect crash occurrence, crash frequency analysis has been undertaken at the macroscopic and microscopic levels. At the macroscopic level, crashes from a spatial aggregation (such as traffic analysis zone or county) are considered to quantify the impacts of socioeconomic and demographic characteristics, transportation demand and network attributes so as to provide countermeasures from a planning perspective. On the other hand, the microscopic crashes on a segment or intersection are analyzed to identify the influence of geometric design, lighting and traffic flow characteristics with the objective of offering engineering solutions (such as installing sidewalk and bike lane, adding lighting). Although numerous traffic safety studies have been conducted, still there are critical limitations at both levels. In this dissertation, several methodologies have been proposed to alleviate several limitations in the macro- and micro-level safety research. Then, an innovative method has been suggested to analyze crashes at the two levels, simultaneously. At the macro-level, the viability of dual-state models (i.e., zero-inflated and hurdle models) were explored for traffic analysis zone based pedestrian and bicycle crash analysis. Additionally, spatial spillover effects were explored in the models by employing exogenous variables from neighboring zones. Both conventional single-state model (i.e., negative binomial) and dual-state models such as zero-inflated negative binomial and hurdle negative binomial models with and without spatial effects were developed. The model comparison results for pedestrian and bicycle crashes revealed that the models that considered observed spatial effects perform better than the models that did not consider the observed spatial effects. Across the models with spatial spillover effects, the dual-state models especially zero-inflated negative binomial model offered better performance compared to single-state models. Moreover, the model results clearly highlighted the importance of various traffic, roadway, and sociodemographic characteristics of the TAZ as well as neighboring TAZs on pedestrian and bicycle crash frequency. Then, the modifiable areal unit problem for macro-level crash analysis was discussed. Macro-level traffic safety analysis has been undertaken at different spatial configurations. However, clear guidelines for the appropriate zonal system selection for safety analysis are unavailable. In this study, a comparative analysis was conducted to determine the optimal zonal system for macroscopic crash modeling considering census tracts (CTs), traffic analysis zones (TAZs), and a newly developed traffic-related zone system labeled traffic analysis districts (TADs). Poisson lognormal models for three crash types (i.e., total, severe, and non-motorized mode crashes) were developed based on the three zonal systems without and with consideration of spatial autocorrelation. The study proposed a method to compare the modeling performance of the three types of geographic units at different spatial configuration through a grid based framework. Specifically, the study region was partitioned to grids of various sizes and the model prediction accuracy of the various macro models was considered within these grids of various sizes. These model comparison results for all crash types indicated that the models based on TADs consistently offer a better performance compared to the others. Besides, the models considering spatial autocorrelation outperformed the ones that do not consider it. Finally, based on the modeling results, it is recommended to adopt TADs for transportation safety planning. After determining the optimal traffic safety analysis zonal system, further analysis was conducted for non-motorist crashes (pedestrian and bicycle crashes). This study contributed to the literature on pedestrian and bicyclist safety by building on the conventional count regression models to explore exogenous factors affecting pedestrian and bicyclist crashes at the macroscopic level. In the traditional count models, effects of exogenous factors on non-motorist crashes were investigated directly. However, the vulnerable road users' crashes are collisions between vehicles and non-motorists. Thus, the exogenous factors can affect the non-motorist crashes through the non-motorists and vehicle drivers. To accommodate for the potentially different impact of exogenous factors we converted the non-motorist crash counts as the product of total crash counts and proportion of non-motorist crashes and formulated a joint model of the negative binomial (NB) model and the logit model to deal with the two parts, respectively. The formulated joint model was estimated using non-motorist crash data based on the Traffic Analysis Districts (TADs) in Florida. Meanwhile, the traditional NB model was also estimated and compared with the joint model. The results indicated that the joint model provides better data fit and could identify more significant variables. Subsequently, a novel joint screening method was suggested based on the proposed model to identify hot zones for non-motorist crashes. The hot zones of non-motorist crashes were identified and divided into three types: hot zones with more dangerous driving environment only, hot zones with more hazardous walking and cycling conditions only, and hot zones with both. At the microscopic level, crash modeling analysis was conducted for road facilities. This study, first, explored the potential macro-level effects which are always excluded or omitted in the previous studies. A Bayesian hierarchical model was proposed to analyze crashes on segments and intersection incorporating the macro-level data, which included both explanatory variables and total crashes of all segments and intersections. Besides, a joint modeling structure was adopted to consider the potentially spatial autocorrelation between segments and their connected intersections. The proposed model was compared with three other models: a model considering micro-level factors only, one hierarchical model considering macro-level effects with random terms only, and one hierarchical model considering macro-level effects with explanatory variables. The results indicated that models considering macro-level effects outperformed the model having micro-level factors only, which supports the idea to consider macro-level effects for micro-level crash analysis. Besides, the micro-level models were even further enhanced by the proposed model. Finally, significant spatial correlation could be found between segments and their adjacent intersections, supporting the employment of the joint modeling structure to analyze crashes at various types of road facilities. In addition to the separated analysis at either the macro- or micro-level, an integrated approach has been proposed to examine traffic safety problems at the two levels, simultaneously. If conducted in the same study area, the macro- and micro-level crash analyses should investigate the same crashes but aggregating the crashes at different levels. Hence, the crash counts at the two levels should be correlated and integrating macro- and micro-level crash frequency analyses in one modeling structure might have the ability to better explain crash occurrence by realizing the effects of both macro- and micro-level factors. This study proposed a Bayesian integrated spatial crash frequency model, which linked the crash counts of macro- and micro-levels based on the spatial interaction. In addition, the proposed model considered the spatial autocorrelation of different types of road facilities (i.e., segments and intersections) at the micro-level with a joint modeling structure. Two independent non-integrated models for macro- and micro-levels were also estimated separately and compared with the integrated model. The results indicated that the integrated model can provide better model performance for estimating macro- and micro-level crash counts, which validates the concept of integrating the models for the two levels. Also, the integrated model provides more valuable insights about the crash occurrence at the two levels by revealing both macro- and micro-level factors. Subsequently, a novel hotspot identification method was suggested, which enables us to detect hotspots for both macro- and micro-levels with comprehensive information from the two levels. It is expected that the proposed integrated model and hotspot identification method can help practitioners implement more reasonable transportation safety plans and more effective engineering treatments to proactively enhance safety.
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Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.)
College of Engineering and Computer Science
Civil, Environmental, and Construction Engineering
Length of Campus-only Access
Doctoral Dissertation (Open Access)
Cai, Qing, "Integrating the macroscopic and microscopic traffic safety analysis using hierarchical models" (2017). Electronic Theses and Dissertations, 2004-2019. 5507.