Connected and automated vehicle (CAV) technologies have recently drawn an increasing attention from governments, vehicle manufacturers, and researchers. Connected vehicle (CV) technologies provide real-time information about the surrounding traffic condition (i.e., position, speed, acceleration) and the traffic management center's decisions. The CV technologies improve the safety by increasing driver situational awareness and reducing crashes through vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) and vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I). Vehicle platooning with CV technologies is another key element of the future transportation systems which helps to simultaneously enhance traffic operations and safety. CV technologies can also further increase the efficiency and reliability of automated vehicles (AV) by collecting real-time traffic information through V2V and V2I. However, the market penetration rate (MPR) of CAVs and the higher level of automation might not be fully available in the foreseeable future. Hence, it is worthwhile to study the safety benefits of CAV technologies under different MPRs and lower level of automation. None of the studies focused on both traffic safety and operational benefits for these technologies including different roadway, traffic, and weather conditions. In this study, the effectiveness of CAV technologies (i.e., CV /AV/CAV/CV platooning) were evaluated in different roadway, traffic, and weather conditions. To be more specific, the impact of CVs in reduced visibility condition, longitudinal safety evaluation of CV platooning in the managed lane, lower level of AVs in arterial roadway, and the optimal MPRs of CAVs for both peak and off-peak period are analyzed using simulation techniques. Currently, CAV fleet data are not easily obtainable which is one of the primary reasons to deploy the simulation techniques in this study to evaluate the impacts of CAVs in the roadway. The car following, lane changing, and the platooning behavior of the CAV technologies were modeled in the C++ programming language by considering realistic car following and lane changing models in PTV VISSIM. Surrogate safety assessment techniques were considered to evaluate the safety effectiveness of these CAV technologies, while the average travel time, average speed, and average delay were evaluated as traffic operational measures. Several statistical tests (i.e., Two sample t-test, ANOVA) and the modelling techniques (Tobit, Negative binomial, and Logistic regression) were conducted to evaluate the CAV effectiveness with different MPRs over the baseline scenario. The statistical tests and modeling results suggested that the higher the MPR of CAVs implemented, the higher were the safety and mobility benefits achieved for different roadways (i.e., freeway, expressway, arterials, managed lane), weather (i.e., clear, foggy), and traffic conditions (i.e., peak and off-peak period). Interestingly, from the safety and operation perspective, at least 30% and 20% MPR were needed to achieve both the safety and operational benefits of peak and off-peak period, respectively. This dissertation has major implications for improving transportation infrastructure by recommending optimal MPR of CAVs to achieve balanced mobility and safety benefits considering varying roadway, traffic, and weather condition.


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Graduation Date





Abdel-Aty, Mohamed


Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.)


College of Engineering and Computer Science


Civil, Environmental, and Construction Engineering

Degree Program

Civil Engineering









Release Date

August 2019

Length of Campus-only Access


Access Status

Doctoral Dissertation (Open Access)