Ambulatory medical care, Thailand, HIV, health services administration


The accomplishment of pilot implementation of the HIVQUAL-T model, an innovative HIV care quality management tool, has led to an authoritative decision to scale up the use of the model nationwide in Thailand. However, the level of implementing this model varies across target hospitals. Some hospitals have fully adopted the model by conducting quality improvement (QI) activities following performance measurement (PM) results while others have partially adopted only PM or have not used this model at all. The differential level of implementation could be a contributing factor accounting for discrepancies in the quality of care across different HIV ambulatory care facilities. A cross-sectional study was conducted by using two main datasets, including Thailand's national HIV care performance results and an online survey of all public hospitals nationwide. A total of 382 hospitals responded to the survey, accounting for a response rate of 50%. A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) method was performed to examine the validity of latent constructs developed from the diffusion of innovation theory. Structural equation modeling (SEM) approach was employed to investigate the relationship between the determinants of organizational decision-making and their contribution to organizational outcomes, under the context-design-performance framework. Furthermore, using a panel model of hospitals that reported performance results across a 3-year period, the improvement in HIV ambulatory services performance among the adopters was examined. The results indicated that two innovation attributes--relative advantage and simplicity perceived by HIV care practitioners in hospitals--were found to be positively associated with the level of the HIVQUAL-T model implementation. Two structural characteristics--interconnectedness and organizational slack--appeared to be positively associated with the level of model implementation, while rate of adoption in the region also had significant positive contribution. Ultimately, the extensiveness of the HIVQUAL-T model implementation demonstrated a proportionate impact on the variation in hospitals' HIV ambulatory services performance. It was noted that the implementers considerably improved their performance within two years of implementing the model. The study findings imply that adoption is more likely when individual practitioners assess the innovation and find it to be easy to comprehend and operate and also worthwhile to implement. Furthermore, hospitals' decision making is likely influenced by their relations to external environment. The findings suggest more emphasis on individual and hospital-level capacity building for meaningful use of this quality management initiative, accompanied by an adjustment of performance measurement software with valid, reliable, and interpretable indicators.


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Graduation Date





Wan, Thomas T. H.


Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.)


College of Health and Public Affairs








Release Date

May 2011

Length of Campus-only Access


Access Status

Doctoral Dissertation (Open Access)