refractive index, dispersion, Raman scattering, Raman gain coefficients, nonlinear fiber optics, liquid-core fibers


Novel technologies capable of generating wavelengths not accessible with typical laser gain media have been among the primary drivers of the field of nonlinear optics. Here, we are interested in the linear and nonlinear properties of liquids beyond the visible spectrum, motivated in part by their use as core materials in optical fibers. Given their dispersion, nonlinearities, transparency, and ability to be mixed, liquids show potential for exploiting in-fiber nonlinear phenomena for developing the new generation of low cost, size, weight, and power wavelength-agile fiber-laser sources. For the design, modeling, and experimental realization of these liquid-core fiber laser sources, proper knowledge of dispersion and Raman gain coefficients is necessary. However, the data for the liquids in the near-IR spectrum are sparse, with most reported values being in the visible and only for commonly used solvents.

In this thesis, we report a Rayleigh interferometry-based refractometer to characterize the refractive index of 26 solvents relative to standard materials at seven different wavelengths (543.5, 632.8, 780, 973, 1064, 1550, and 1970 nm) at a temperature of ~ 21.3±0.6 °C. The corresponding Sellmeier equations fitted to our data for each liquid are given and compared with previously published literature; percent transmittance data for each liquid are also provided.

Furthermore, we use a well-known technique for obtaining the relative total differential Raman cross-section of eight selected solvents at 532 nm. By measuring and analyzing the solvents' spontaneous Raman emission, we obtain their depolarization ratios, linewidth, and calculate their Raman gain coefficients. With knowledge of the electronic resonance and frequency dependence of the total differential cross-section, extrapolations were used to provide values for the total differential cross-section and gain coefficient at 1064 nm.

Completion Date




Committee Chair

Hagan, David J.


Master of Science (M.S.)


College of Optics and Photonics

Degree Program

Optics and Photonics








Release Date

December 2023

Length of Campus-only Access


Access Status

Masters Thesis (Open Access)

Campus Location

Orlando (Main) Campus

Included in

Optics Commons