A fish kill was observed in a historically freshwater region of the Everglades, coinciding with a spike in salinity. Sea level rise and altered hydrology allow freshwater wetland systems to be susceptible to saltwater intrusion. Most wetlands are characterized by highly organic soils with microbial communities starved of oxygen, seeking alternative electron acceptors. Seawater contains sulfate (SO42-), which is one of the alternative electron acceptors. Provided with sufficient quantities, sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) outcompete other anaerobes and produce toxic hydrogen sulfide.

This study asked, what combination of soil organic matter (SOM) and SO42- are needed to produce sulfide concentrations potentially lethal to freshwater fish? Soil samples were collected from two freshwater wetlands with varying SOM content and incubated in microcosms at four SO42- concentrations (0, 0.75, 4.0, and 12.0 mM Na2SO4). Sulfide concentrations produced were compared to published data on lethal sulfide toxicity levels for aquatic life.

This study demonstrated that high SOM soils (89.3 ± 0.2 % moisture) incubated with SO42- concentrations > 0.75 mM, rapidly produced toxic sulfide concentrations (> 5 ppm S2-) within 24 hrs.. While many freshwater species may tolerate a salinity of 1 ppt (0.75 mM SO42-), this SO42-concentration is sufficient to support SRB and lead to toxic sulfide production. ese results support the need to restore freshwater hydrology in wetland systems, such as the Everglades, thereby protecting against the rapid ecological effects of saltwater intrusion.

Thesis Completion




Thesis Chair

Chambers, Lisa


Bachelor of Science (B.S.)


College of Sciences



Degree Program

Environmental Studies



Access Status

Campus Access

Length of Campus-only Access

5 years

Release Date