This paper aims to study how varying crossflow burning temperatures from 1100 C to 1800 C affect the liquid droplet breakup, size distribution, and atomization of a liquid water jet injected into a vitiated crossflow. The LJIC injection mechanism was implemented using the high-pressure axially staged combustion facility at the University of Central Florida. The measurement devices used to gather particle data from the exhaust plume were the TSI Aerodynamic Particle Sizer (APS), which measures particles between 0.523 µm and 20 µm, and the Sensirion SPS30 (SPS30), which measures particles between 0.3 µm and 10 µm. Both measurement devices were placed 3 ft away from the choked exit. Table 3 shows that the 1800 C crossflow temperature behaved as predicted by having the largest particle distribution of 67.97% and the largest particle count of 19,301 at 0.523 µm. The 1100 C crossflow produced the second-largest normalized particle count of 66.69% and raw particle count of 20,209 at 0.523 µm. This result is contrary to the original hypothesis because it shows that the relationship between temperature and particle count is non-linear and that many other factors must be at play in the atomization process, such as the droplet distribution at the nano level. The SPS30 was used to compare the particle size distributions between a 1500 C and 1800 C crossflow. Acquiring number concentration data for particles up to 10 µm in size, the 1800 C crossflow had a distribution peak at 802.76416 N/cm3, and the 1500 C crossflow had a peak of 867.28272 N/cm3. For the 0.5 µm peak, The 1800 C had a 10 µm particle size distribution peak at 674.27.76416 N/cm3, and the 1500C crossflow had a peak of 730.501 N/cm3. The decreased number concentration from 1500 C to 1800 C case grants the water particles in the 1800 C crossflow increased surface area, which allows for increased heat exposure from the vitiated crossflow [7]. Despite some nonlinear particle count results, the highest crossflow temperature of 1800 C produces the best atomization results by reducing the total particle count and having the largest collection of particles at the lowest detectable particle size of 0.523 µm.

Thesis Completion




Thesis Chair/Advisor

Ahmed, Kareem


Bachelor Science in Aerospace Engineering (B.S.A.E.)


College of Engineering and Computer Science


Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering

Degree Program

Aerospace Engineering



Access Status

Open Access

Release Date