The objective of this research is to identify the need for stricter environmental standards and regulations in three areas of study. Organized by their level of analysis, these areas are Latin America (at the System-Level-of Analysis), Colombia (at the State-Level-of-Analysis), and the city of Cartagena (at the Sub-National-Level of Analysis). This research was accomplished in two phases. The first involved conducting an exhaustive literature search of sources, germane to the objective, published in Spanish and English. The second featured a site inspection conducted over a 10-day period during the month of May 2016 to Cartagena, Colombia. The purpose of the site inspection was to interview locals and to photographically document waste disposal practices. The results of this research determined that government at all levels (system, state, and subnational) play a significant and sometimes determinant role in managing waste and water pollution that are responsible for health problems primarily among the poor; these health problems are discussed in detail. This research discovered that the lack of government intervention is responsible for reducing the efficacy of waste management and water sanitation services. This research concludes with a discussion of how proactive waste management and water sanitation policies and practices can have a significant benefit not only to improving health but also has significant economic, social and environmental benefits that may reach beyond local levels.

Thesis Completion




Thesis Chair/Advisor

Sadri, Houman A.


Bledsoe, Robert


Bachelor of Arts (B.A.)


College of Sciences


Political Science

Degree Program

International and Global Studies


Orlando (Main) Campus



Access Status

Open Access

Release Date

December 2016