Prior research has shown that positive psychological states and attitudes are known outcomes in students who are engaged on their college campus. Although many studies prove this to be evident, literature lacks examination between these two variables. The purpose of the current study was to find a cognitive link between student engagement and the measured outcomes of self-esteem, college self-efficacy, college affiliation, and levels of optimism/pessimism. The study proposed that there is a process of developing an internal sense of presence on campus, which occurs in those students that are actively engaged in activities outside of the classroom. Individual personality traits are additionally measured as a variable for tendencies of involvement. Measurements of presence level in students were analyzed by administering a Campus Presence Scale, modified from the Witmer & Singer Presence Scale. The study subscales that examine levels of student engagement and its outcomes were measured in an online questionnaire format via Qualtrics. A total of 371 students at the University of Central Florida participated in the study. This study hypothesized that students who spend more time on campus engaged in co-curricular activities would display higher levels of presence development. The study also sought a flow of development in these processes, hypothesizing that campus presence mediates the actions in which students engage and their psychological well-being and attitudes towards their institution. Analyses in SPSS were used to examine these relationships. Results indicated that presence is significantly correlated with higher student self-esteem, self-efficacy, college affiliation, and optimism. Results also showed that those involved with student organizations and those who regularly attend campus events are significantly more extroverted and have higher levels of presence, college affiliation and self-efficacy

Thesis Completion




Thesis Chair/Advisor

McConnell, Daniel


Bachelor of Science (B.S.)


College of Sciences



Degree Program



Orlando (Main) Campus



Access Status

Open Access

Release Date