The main purpose of this research synthesis was to determine recommendations that promote the development of a trauma-informed approach in Venezuelan schools to address the traumatic effects of political unrest in young children through a systematic review of existent intervention programs. After conducting an initial search, four studies were identified that studied the effectiveness of an intervention program in schools targeting trauma in children younger than 14 years old.

Results showed that there were four categories that all studies incorporated. All intervention programs used an assessment tool to determine PTSD presence and symptomatology, as well as other domains that could be impacted. The assessment was used to determine the need for extensive intervention and to record the effectiveness of the program. The development of the intervention program was carefully established. Approaches varied in length, intervention provider, curriculum used, and ages, yet all focused on either Cognitive Behavioral Therapy or Play Therapy as the foundation. Third, teachers were trained and received support throughout the study. Training included education on the repercussions of trauma, symptomatology, and ways to address the need of children. Clinicians provided ongoing classroom support to improve the environment. Finally, in three of the studies, parents received training on trauma symptomatology and the effects of trauma. Parents learned strategies to work with their children and were able to take part in the intervention.

Even though the understanding of trauma in childhood populations dates back to World War II, there is a lack of tiered intervention programs provided in schools for children at risk. In Venezuela today, children experience an ongoing environment of toxic stress paired with systemic oppression trauma. Thus, there is a need for an intervention program to reach large groups of children that does not generate an economic burden on parents. This study provides a comprehensive analysis of effective methods that can be used for a further intervention program. New policies need to be established to ensure that the most vulnerable populations receive all the services needed to succeed in the future and that the socioeconomic gap is narrowed.

Thesis Completion




Thesis Chair/Advisor

Macy, Marisa


Bachelor of Science (B.S.)


College of Community Innovation and Education


Early Childhood Development and Education

Degree Program

Early Childhood Development and Education


Orlando (Main) Campus



Access Status

Open Access

Release Date