OBJECTIVE: The aim of this literature review was to examine the most current research regarding effective, evidence-based programs for reducing incivility among the healthcare team, particularly nurses. BACKGROUND: Incivility in the work environment is linked to a variety of negative outcomes, including diminished productivity, impaired judgement, and reduced employee retention. Incivility is especially detrimental to the healthcare team because it is correlated with decreased quality of patient care and increased medical errors. Despite regulations and statements made by the Joint Commission and the American Nurses Association to combat this serious problem, incivility continues to plague healthcare. METHODS: CINAHL and MEDLINE databases were reviewed for interventions to reduce incivility or bullying. Articles that evaluated interventions for practicing nurses were included in the review. RESULTS: The majority of studies evaluated training programs based on cognitive theory or cognitive rehearsal training as an intervention for incivility or bullying. Most studies showed positive correlations between the intervention and reducing incivility or bullying in some areas, however, results were inconsistent, most evidence ranked low and most studies shared sub-optimal quality. CONCLUSION: Most current studies towards reducing incivility in the healthcare team are poorly designed for demonstrating causation. More research is required to examine effective, evidence-based solutions for cultivating civility. Research must distinguish independent variables, incorporate teams instead of individuals, and fit into the structure of the work environment that it is serving.

Thesis Completion




Thesis Chair/Advisor

Warshawsky, Nora


Galura, Sandra


Bachelor of Science in Nursing (B.S.N.)


College of Nursing





Access Status

Open Access

Release Date


Included in

Nursing Commons