This thesis proposes a model for the comparison of cities as settlement patterns, based primarily on the works of Monica Smith, Michael E. Smith, and V. Gordon Childe. The Tripart Stage-Based Model proposed here examines city proportions, internal specialization, and external specialization, as well as variables within each characteristic. It is intended for use in both the individual study of a settlement's form and function as well as comparative analysis. The Tripart Stage-Based Model operationalizes Monica Smith's triaxial model and creates a progression of analysis beginning with the form of the city before moving through its individual and larger context. This thesis uses the case studies of Kerkenes, Byzantine Constantinople, and Ankara to examine cross-temporal differences in settlement patterns in Anatolia to test the model's utility in comparative analysis. The thesis finds increasing proportions and external specialization in cities across periods and significant variation in potential evidence for analysis. This thesis provides a foundational exploration of the Tripart Stage-Based Model's use in cross- temporal analysis and calls for further application and study into the geographic and cultural variation between cities as settlement patterns in future research.

Thesis Completion




Thesis Chair/Advisor

Branting, Scott


Bachelor of Arts (B.A.)


College of Arts and Humanities



Access Status

Open Access

Release Date


Included in

Anthropology Commons