Post activation potentiation, muscle architecture, jump performance


Purpose: To examine the effect of three muscle potentiation protocols on changes in muscle architecture and the subsequent effect on jump power performance. Methods: Maximal (1RM) squat strength (Mean SD=178.3 ± 36.6kg), vertical jump power, and muscle architecture were obtained in 12 resistance trained men (25.2±3.6y; 90.67±12.7kg). Participants randomly completed three squatting protocols at 75% (3 x 10 reps), 90% (3 x 3 reps) or 100% (1 x 1) of their 1RM, or no workout (CON), with each protocol being separated by one week. During each testing session ultrasound and vertical jump testing were assessed at baseline (BL), 8min post (8P) and 20min post (20P) workout. Ultrasound measures of the rectus femoris (RF) and vastus lateralis (VL) muscles included; cross sectional area (CSA) and pennation angle (PNG). Following each ultrasound, peak (PVJP) and mean (MVJP) vertical jump power (using hands for maximum jump height) were measured using an accelerometer. Results: Magnitude based inferences analysis indicated that in comparison to CON, 75% resulted in a likely greater change in RF-CSA and VL-CSA (BL-8P and BL–20P), 90% resulted in a likely greater RF-CSA and VL-CSA (BL–20P), and 100% resulted in a very likely or likely decrease in VL-PNG at BL-8P and BL–20P, respectively). Meanwhile, changes in PVJP and MVJP for the 75% trial was likely decreased at BL-8P and BL–20P; and for the 90% trial MVJP was likely decreased at BL-8P and BL–20P. Analysis of the magnitude of the relationships indicated a likely negative relationship between VL-PNG and MVJP (r = -0.35; p < 0.018) at BL-8P, while at BL–20P, a negative relationship was observed between PVJP and RF-CSA (r = - 0.37; p < 0.014). iii Conclusion: Acute increases in muscle size and acute decreases in pennation angle did not result in any potentiation in vertical jump power measures. Although the inverse relationships observed between muscle architecture variables and power suggests a potential effect, the change in position (i.e. movement from standing to supine for ultrasound measures) may negate, as a result of potential fluid shifts or muscle relaxation, the potentiating effects of the exercise. It is also possible that the fatiguing nature of the squat protocols in trained but not competitive participants may have also contributed to the results.


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Graduation Date





Hoffman, Jay


Master of Science (M.S.)


College of Education and Human Performance


Child, Family, and Community Sciences

Degree Program

Sport and Exercise Sciences; Applied Exercise Physiology








Release Date

December 2013

Length of Campus-only Access


Access Status

Masters Thesis (Open Access)


Dissertations, Academic -- Education, Education -- Dissertations, Academic