Multiphase, dynamic, transient, dvid


Future microprocessors pose many challenges to the power conversion techniques. Multiphase synchronous buck converters have been widely used in high current low voltage microprocessor application. Design optimization needs to be carefully carried out with pushing the envelope specification and ever increasing concentration towards power saving features. In this work, attention has been focused on dynamic aspects of multiphase synchronous buck design. The power related issues and optimizations have been comprehensively investigated in this paper. In the first chapter, multiphase DC-DC conversion is presented with background application. Adaptive voltage positioning and various nonlinear control schemes are evaluated. Design optimization are presented to achieve best static efficiency over the entire load range. Power loss analysis from various operation modes and driver IC definition are studied thoroughly to better understand the loss terms and minimize the power loss. Load adaptive control is then proposed together with parametric optimization to achieve optimum efficiency figure. New nonlinear control schemes are proposed to improve the transient response, i.e. load engage and load release responses, of the multiphase VR in low frequency repetitive transient. Drop phase optimization and PWM transition from long tri-state phase are presented to improve the smoothness and robustness of the VR in mode transition. During high frequency repetitive transient, the control loop should be optimized and nonlinear loop should be turned off. Dynamic current sharing are thoroughly studied in chapter 4. The output impedance of the multiphase v synchronous buck are derived to assist the analysis. Beat frequency is studied and mitigated by proposing load frequency detection scheme by turning OFF the nonlinear loop and introducing current protection in the control loop. Dynamic voltage scaling (DVS) is now used in modern Multi-Core processor (MCP) and multiprocessor System-on-Chip (MPSoC) to reduce operational voltage under light load condition. With the aggressive motivation to boost dynamic power efficiency, the design specification of voltage transition (dv/dt) for the DVS is pushing the physical limitation of the multiphase converter design and the component stress as well. In this paper, the operation modes and modes transition during dynamic voltage transition are illustrated. Critical dead-times of driver IC design and system dynamics are first studied and then optimized. The excessive stress on the control MOSFET which increases the reliability concern is captured in boost mode operation. Feasible solutions are also proposed and verified by both simulation and experiment results. CdV/dt compensation for removing the AVP effect and novel nonlinear control scheme for smooth transition are proposed for dealing with fast voltage positioning. Optimum phase number control during dynamic voltage transition is also proposed and triggered by voltage identification (VID) delta to further reduce the dynamic loss. The proposed schemes are experimentally verified in a 200 W six phase synchronous buck converter. Finally, the work is concluded. The references are listed.


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Graduation Date





Wu, Thomas X.


Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.)


College of Engineering and Computer Science


Electrical Engineering and Computer Science

Degree Program

Electrical Engineering








Release Date


Length of Campus-only Access

3 years

Access Status

Doctoral Dissertation (Open Access)


Dissertations, Academic -- Engineering and Computer Science, Engineering and Computer Science -- Dissertations, Academic