second-order change leadership behaviors, principals, Title I elementary schools, large urban school districts, free and reduced school lunch, Florida Department of Education


The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between second-order change leadership behaviors and the grade assigned to schools in large urban districts by the Florida Department of Education (FLDOE). A total of 101 Title I elementary school principals from large urban school districts with 60+% students on Free and Reduced School Lunch participated in the study. Specifically, this study analyzed 7 of the 21 second-order change factor responsibilities. They include (a) knowledge of curriculum, instruction, assessment, (b) optimizer, (c) intellectual stimulation, (d) change agent, (e) monitoring/evaluating, (f) flexibility, and (g) ideals/beliefs. The findings of this study were delineated through an examination of the data as it was related to the following questions: (a) What are the differences, if any, in the Principal Actions Survey scores of Title I elementary principals based on the 2008 school grade, according to the FLDOE? (b) What relationship, if any, exists among professional demographics of the principals (years at the school, years as an educator, years as an administrator prior to becoming a principal, years as a principal, highest degree earned, age, gender) and the second-order change leadership behaviors? (c) What are the differences, if any, in the second-order change leadership behavior subgroup scores based on the 2008 school grade according to the FLDOE? Although Research Question 1 had no statistical significance, principals who had a higher mean on the Principal Actions Survey led A and B-rated schools. Statistical significance was found in Research Question 2 for the second-order change leadership behavior of Change Agent and Ideals/Beliefs. Though statistical significance was not found in Research Question 3, each mean score for each sub-group in each grade group indicated consistent answers between Strongly Agree and Agree, which demonstrated a large degree of agreement. Additionally, comments from telephone interviews with selected principals determined that these leadership behaviors could positively impact elementary schools and the field of education. Recommendations of the study were to: (a) Conduct a follow-up study to gather the perceptions of teachers from the same Title I schools regarding their principals' second-order change leadership behaviors, (b) conduct a similar study with principals in Title I middle and high school settings, (c) conduct a qualitative study on second-order change leadership behaviors of non-Title I elementary, middle, and high school principals, (d) engage in further research to investigate professional development activities that may assist principals in enhancing second-order change leadership behaviors and improve instruction, (e) investigate the relationship between principals' second-order change leadership behaviors and achievement of Adequate Yearly Progress (f) replicate the study in states other than Florida (g) explore the relationship between second-order change leadership behaviors of district administrators and their district's academic success.


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Graduation Date



Taylor, Rosemarye


Doctor of Education (Ed.D.)


College of Education


Educational Research, Technology, and Leadership

Degree Program









Release Date

February 2010

Length of Campus-only Access


Access Status

Doctoral Dissertation (Open Access)

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Education Commons