In the last few years, optics has witnessed the emergence of two fields namely metasurfaces and parity-time (PT) symmetry. Optical metasurfaces are engineered structures that provide unique responses to electromagnetic waves, absent in natural materials. Optical metasurfaces are known for their reduced dimensionality i.e. subwavelength and consequently lower losses are anticipated. The other paradigm is the PT symmetric materials, also known as photonic synthetic matter. PT symmetry has emerged from quantum mechanics when a new class of non-Hermitian Hamiltonian quantum systems was highlighted to have real eigenvalues, hence eradicating Hermiticity of the Hamiltonian as an essential condition to the existence of real eigenvalues. The first half of the thesis is focused on the experimental and numerical realization of PT symmetric metasurfaces. A systematic methodology is developed to implement this class of metasurfaces in both one-dimensional and two-dimensional geometries. In two dimensional systems, PT symmetry can be established by employing either H-like diffractive elements or diatomic oblique Bravais lattices. It is shown that the passive PT symmetric metasurfaces can be utilized to appropriately engineer the resulting far-field characteristics. Such PT-symmetric structures are capable of eliminating diffraction orders in specific directions, while maintaining or even enhancing the remaining orders. Later, it is shown a first ever attempt of PT metasurface fabricated on a flexible polymer (polyimide) substrate. The studied PT metasurface exhibits the ability to direct light, i.e. Poynting vector in a desired direction. Herein, the light scattered from the fabricated device in the undesired direction is attenuated by at least an order of magnitude. The proposed PT symmetric metasurface is essentially diatomic Honeycomb Bravais lattice, where both the passive and lossy elements exist side by side on each site separated by 50 nm. The unidirectionality of the studied metasurface is not limited to a single wavelength, on the contrary, it is observed to be effective on the entire visible band (400 – 600 nm). The PT symmetric meatsurface is also fabricated on a high strength substrate; sapphire (Al2O3). An excellent agreement between the experimental and numerical (COMSOL) results is found for both substrates. Customized modifications to the current design can open avenues to study the unidirectionality of metasurfaces to different optical bands, for example IR. The second part of the thesis deals with the theoretical modeling of the dynamics of an electron that gets trapped by means of decoherence and quantum interference in the central quantum dot (QD) of a semiconductor nanoring (NR) made of five QDs, between 100 and 300 K. The electron's dynamics is described by a master equation with a Hamiltonian based on the tight-binding model, taking into account electron–LO phonon interaction. Based on this configuration, the probability to trap an electron with no decoherence is almost 27%. In contrast, the probability to trap an electron with decoherence is 70% at 100 K, 63% at 200 K and 58% at 300 K. Our model provides a novel method of trapping an electron at room temperature. This setup is then used to propose a theoretical model for an electrically driven single photon source operating at high temperatures. It is shown that the decoherence, which is usually the main obstacle for operating single photon sources at high temperatures, ensures an efficient operation of the presented electrically driven single photon source at high temperatures. The single-photon source is driven by a single electron source attached to a heterostructure semiconductor nanoring. The electron's dynamics in the nanoring and the subsequent recombination with the hole is described by the generalized master equation with a Hamiltonian based on tight-binding model, taking into account the electron-LO phonon interaction. As a result of decoherence, an almost 100% single photon emission with a strong antibunching behavior i.e. g(2)(0) < < 1 at high temperature up to 300 K is achieved.
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Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.)
College of Sciences
Length of Campus-only Access
Doctoral Dissertation (Open Access)
El Halawany, Ahmed, "Optical Parity Time Metasurface Structures" (2016). Electronic Theses and Dissertations, 2004-2019. 5303.