With the increased number of English learners (ELs) participating in large-scale state testing, there has been an increased focus on fairness in testing for these students. Test accommodations have shown promise in eliminating barriers and improving accessibility, and computer-based testing (CBT) allows individual customization of tests with built-in accessibility features. Most research on testing accommodations focuses on paper-based tests, but CBT is the most predominant mode of delivering large-scale state assessments. This study aims to synthesize research on the validity and effectiveness of CBT accommodations for EL students. Meta-analysis methodology was used to summarize the findings from previous CBT studies. Eight studies out of 292 studies met the inclusion criteria. The results indicated that CBT accommodations did not influence non-EL test scores, providing evidence for the validity of EL test accommodations. There was a .12 standard deviation improvement in EL test scores for EL students who had CBT accommodations. The grade level of EL moderated the effectiveness of the accommodation, with elementary students demonstrating higher effects than middle and high school students. The findings of this study are similar to those studies that examined paper-based accommodations.



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