This longitudinal case study provides an in-depth exploration of the journey toward bilingualism and biliteracy of two older adopted Salvadoran siblings in U.S. schools. Data sources include observations in the home and school, interviews, written artifacts, field notes, and various reading test scores. Analysis suggests that literacy instruction in English tended to focus more on phonics and fluency than comprehension and vocabulary, and it assumed a level of oral proficiency in English that neither of the children had. Spanish literacy instruction was aimed toward children of Mexican origin that was neither culturally relevant nor geared toward their specific language needs. The authors recommend that educators recognize the importance of linguistic and cultural differences when working with both first and second language literacy.



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