Instructions for Authors

This document provides details on layout requirements pertaining to manuscript submission to the Human-Machine Communication.

All submissions to the Human-Machine Communication must follow the formatting requirements of the most recent edition of the APA style guide. All references must include accurate and linked Digital Object Identifiers.

It is the responsibility of the author(s) to ensure all images, figures, and tables follow the format requirements. Moreover, it is the responsibility of the author(s) to ensure all images have the needed permissions for use or are the property of the author(s). The act of submitting any image, table, or figure is an indication that all needed permissions have been obtained and cleared by the author(s).

If the authors cannot or choose not to comply with the submission requirements, the Human-Machine Communication will remove the manuscript from publication.

Authors are asked to create an ORCID before submitting a manuscript. If you and/or your co-authors do not have an ORCID, please consider registering for one as it will enhance the visibility of your scholarship. ORCID provides a unique digital identifier that distinguishes authors. It provides a persistent digital identifier that distinguishes you from every other researcher. Information on how to create an ID can be found at the ORCID website. Please also consider turning on automatic updates for your ORCID.

Formatting Requirements

  • Remember to include an abstract. The abstract may be a maximum of 125 words.
  • The submission system requires the following:
  • Full name of all authors.
  • Institutional or organization affiliation.
  • Contact information of corresponding author (e.g., email and mailing address).
  • Highest degree attained (e.g., MA, PhD).
  • Author biographies are no more than 100 words for each author.
  • Include 4-5 keywords.
  • Include page numbers, headers, or footers.
  • All submissions must be in English.
  • Submit your manuscript, including tables, figures, appendices, etc., as a single file (Word).
  • Page size should be 8.5 x 11 inches.
  • Use 1-inch margins (left, right, top and bottom) including your tables and figures.
  • The text should be doubled spaced.
  • Use a single column layout with both left and right margins justified.
  • Font: 12 pt. Times New Roman or the closest comparable font available.
  • If figures are included: 1200 dpi. Photos: highest resolution possible. Please place any figures, tables of photos after the references for the submission. If the article is accepted, the editor will provide further instructions on how to submit these.
  • Copy edit your manuscript.
  • Submissions must have an introduction (stating the purpose and previewing the structure of the paper) and conclusion section (with a succinct restatement of the article’s contribution to knowledge, and its significance for practice, policy, or future research).

Additional Recommendations

Language & Grammar

All submissions must be in English. Except for common non-English words and phrases, the use of non-English words and phrases should be avoided.

Authors should use proper, standard English grammar. The Elements of Style by William Strunk, Jr. and E. B. White (now in its fourth edition) is the "standard" guide. Another popular guide is Fowler's Dictionary of Modern English Usage edited by Jeremy Butterfield. However, other guides (e.g., The Chicago Manual of Style, University of Chicago Press) may also be consulted.

Article Length

Submissions are limited to 25 total pages including references (cover page and abstract do not count against the 25 limit).

Emphasized text

Whenever necessary italicize to indicate text you wish to emphasize rather than underlining it. Whenever necessary, titles of books, movies, etc., should be set in italics rather than underlined. The use of colored fonts is discouraged.


Headings (e.g., start of sections) should be distinguished from the main body text though bold font.


Footnotes are discouraged.

Tables and Figures

To the extent possible, note where tables and figures should appear in the document. For manuscript review, tables or figures may be placed within the document. However, if a manuscript is accepted for publication, authors will be asked to submit tables and figures separate from the primary document. Avoid the use of overly small type in tables. Only use tables when necessary. Please include tables after the references for the initial submission.


It is the author's obligation to provide complete references in APA style, with the necessary and required information.

For your weblinks in your published article, links can be removed or expire. Because we want research at Human-Machine Communication to be timeless, we ask that you find archived links for your manuscript. The following link outlines how Wikipedia uses the wayback machine to obtain and post archived links. We will look to find the most recent archived link to the webpage you outlined within your manuscript and replace that link with an archived link. If you have any concerns please contact us. See Wayback Machine for help creating archived links.

References must be in the most recent APA format and must include digital object identifiers (DOI) for all publications that have a DOI assigned. If author(s) are unaware whether a specific work has been assigned a DOI, Crossref provides a search option which can be found at search.crossref.org. For more information on how to display a DOI see Crossref DOI display guidelines.