The computers are social actors framework (CASA), derived from the media equation, explains how people communicate with media and machines demonstrating social potential. Many studies have challenged CASA, yet it has not been revised. We argue that CASA needs to be expanded because people have changed, technologies have changed, and the way people interact with technologies has changed. We discuss the implications of these changes and propose an extension of CASA. Whereas CASA suggests humans mindlessly apply human-human social scripts to interactions with media agents, we argue that humans may develop and apply human-media social scripts to these interactions. Our extension explains previous dissonant findings and expands scholarship regarding human-machine communication, human-computer interaction, human-robot interaction, human-agent interaction, artificial intelligence, and computer-mediated communication.
Author ORCID Identifier
Andrew Gambino 0000-0001-8657-6788
Jesse Fox 0000-0002-5018-3250
Rabindra (Robby) A. Ratan 0000-0001-7611-8046
Gambino, A., Fox, J., & Ratan, R. A. (2020). Building a stronger CASA: Extending the computers Are social actors paradigm. Human-Machine Communication, 1, 71-86. https://doi.org/10.30658/hmc.1.5
Communication Technology and New Media Commons, Interpersonal and Small Group Communication Commons, Other Communication Commons, Robotics Commons, Social Influence and Political Communication Commons, Social Media Commons, Social Psychology Commons, Theory and Philosophy Commons