Technological advancements in education have turned the idea of machines as teachers into a reality. To better understand this phenomenon, the present study explores how college students develop expectations (or anticipations) about a machine teacher, particularly an AI teaching assistant. Specifically, the study examines whether students’ previous experiences with online courses taught by a human teacher would influence their expectations about AI teaching assistants in future online courses. An online survey was conducted to collect data from college students in the United States. Findings indicate that positively experienced social presence of a human teacher helps develop positive expectations about an AI teaching assistant. The study provides meaningful implications and contributions to our understanding of a machine agent in education.



Author ORCID Identifier

Jihyun Kim: 0000-0003-2476-610X

Kelly Merrill Jr.: 0000-0002-1221-3789

Kun Xu: 0000-0001-9044-821X

Deanna D. Sellnow: 0000-0003-4668-4359