Follow


Articles

Link

Oedipus Rex

Description: Tragedy regarding Oedipus as the King of Thebes.

Date: c. 429 BCE
Location: Athens, Greece
Keywords: tragedy; Sophocles
Course codes: EUH2000; WOH2012

Link

Pro Cluentio (Defense of Cluentius)

Description: Aulus Cluentius was a wealthy man who had accused his stepfather of trying to poison him (so that Aulus’s mother could inherit all his property). The trial was controversial because both sides probably tried to use bribes to secure favourable verdicts. A decade later, Cluentius’s mother Sassia and his step-brother accused Cluentius of poison, and Cicero defended him at his trial. Cicero probably did not believe Cluentius was innocent: he later boasted that he had pulled the wool over the judges' eyes in this case. This source can be used for gender history, considering the way Cicero portrays "good" versus "bad" women and "good" versus "bad" sons, among many other topics.

Date: 66 BC
Location: Italy/Roman Empire
Keywords: Gender History; Social History; Legal History
Course codes: EUH2000; WOH2012

Books

Link

Description of Rome from Ammianus Marcellinus's History, Ammianus Marcellinus

Description: Ammianus Marcellinus was an elite Roman soldier who wrote a history of Rome towards the end of his life.

Date: Before 395
Location: Roman Empire
Keywords: Social History; Economic History; Intellectual History
Course codes: EUH2000; WOH2012

Link

Germania

Description: Historic work of Germanic tribes outside the Roman Empire.

Date: 98
Location: Roman Empire
Keywords: Germania; Tacitus
Course codes: EUH2000; WOH2012

Link

History of the estate at Neuilly

Description: The estate at Neuilly was gifted and regifted by kings to their supporters over the course of a century. This account gives an insight into how kings used land to gain and maintained support from nobles. It also maps the political developments from the creation of the Carolingian Empire to its division between different rulers.

Date: 876
Location: Carolingian Empire
Keywords: Economic History; Social History; Political History
Course codes: EUH2000; WOH2012

Link

Institutes of the Christian Religion, John Calvin

Description: Regarded as one of the most influential works of Protestant theology, it covers a broad range of theological topics from the doctrines of church and sacraments to justification by faith alone and Christian liberty.

Date: 1536
Location: Basel and Geneva, Switzerland
Keywords: theology; Protestant
Course codes: AMH2010; EUH2000; WOH2012

Link

On the Babylonian Captivity of the Church, Martin Luther

Description: A treatise examines the seven sacraments of the Catholic Church in the light of Luther's interpretation of the Bible.

Date: 1520
Location: Wittenberg, Germany, Holy Roman Empire
Keywords: treatise; religion
Course codes: EUH2000; WOH2012

Link

The History of Rome

Description: History of Rome which covers Aeneas, the founding of Rome, the reign of Augustus, and more.

Date: 27-9 BCE
Location: Roman Empire
Keywords: Livy; Rome
Course codes: EUH2000; WOH2012

Link

The Life and Miracles of St. Cuthbert, Bishop of Lindisfarne

Description: Biography of a saint from early medieval Northumbria.

Date: 721
Location: Kingdom of Northumbria, Britain
Keywords: St. Cuthbert; Bede
Course codes: EUH2000; WOH2012

Link

The Prince, Niccolò Machiavelli

Description: A 16th-century political treatise claimed to be one of the first works of modern philosophy, especially modern political philosophy.

Date: 1513
Location: Florence, Italy
Keywords: Machiavelli
Course codes: EUH2000; WOH2012

Link

The Rule of St. Benedict

Description: A book of precepts written in 516 by Benedict of Nursia for monks living communally under the authority of an abbot.

Date: c. 525
Location: Ostrogothic Italy
Keywords: St. Benedict
Course codes: EUH2000; WOH2012

Link

The Twelve Caesars

Description: Twelve biographies of Julius Caesar and the first eleven emperors of the Roman Empire.

Date: 121
Location: Roman Empire
Keywords: Caesar
Course codes: EUH2000; WOH2012

Law Codes

Link

Capitulary for Saxony

Description: A legal code issued by Charlemagne and promulgated among the Saxons during the Saxon Wars.

Date: 775-790
Location: Frankish/Carolingian Kingdom
Keywords: Charlemagne; Saxon Wars
Course codes: EUH2000; WOH2012

Link

Magna Carta

Description: A royal charter of rights to make peace between a king and a group of rebels. Promised to protect rights of the church, protect barons from illegal imprisonment, and limitations on feudal payments.

Date: 1215
Location: Kingdom of England
Keywords: Magna Carta
Course codes: EUH2000; WOH2012

Link

"Neutrality Act" of August 31, 1935

Description: Passed because of rising threats that would eventually lead to World War II and as a result of World War I, the Neutrality Act sought to ensure the United States was not entangled in foreign wars.

Date: 1935
Location: USA
Keywords: WWII
Course codes: AMH2020; EUH2001; WOH2012

Link

Statute in Favor of the Princes

Description: This law relinquished a number of important Royal rights to the secular princes. Among other things, they received the rights to mint coins and levy tolls in the German part of the Holy Roman Empire. In particular, however, Frederick granted them the right of approval over any legislation proposed in future by the Emperor.

Date: 1231
Location: Germany, Holy Roman Empire
Keywords: Holy Roman Empire
Course codes: EUH2000; WOH2012

Link

The Code of Hammurabi, Ascribed to Hammurabi

Description: The so-called law code was a political document meant to promote the kingship of Hammurabi. It reveals striking class inequality and was seldom if ever consulted in legal contexts.

Date: Old Babylonian, c. 1800 BCE
Location: Babylon
Keywords: Code of Hammurabi; Law; Kingship
Course codes: ASH3200; ASH3204; EUH2000; WOH2012

Legal Documents

Link

Declaration Concerning the Laws of Naval War

Description: International code of maritime law during wartime.

Date: 1909
Location: London
Keywords: WWI; navy
Course codes: AMH2020; EUH2001; WOH2022

Link

Gregory VII's First Deposition and Banning of Henry IV

Description: As Emperor Henry IV and Pope Gregory VII competed to control the appointment of bishops and other church officials, Gregory declared that Henry was not the true ruler and that his subjects did not have to obey him.

Date: 22 February 1076
Location: Italian peninsula
Keywords: Social History; Political History; Religious History; History of Christianity
Course codes: EUH2000; WOH2012

Link

Gulf of Tonkin Resolution

Description: As a result of the Gulf of Tonkin incident, this resolution gave President Johnson to retaliate and promote international peace in southeast Asia.

Date: 1964
Location: USA
Keywords: Cold War; Vietnam
Course codes: AMH2020; EUH2001; WOH2022

Link

Marshall Plan

Description: U.S. aid program which provided more than $15 billion to help rebuild Europe after the Second World War.

Date: 1947
Location: USA
Keywords: WWII; Cold War
Course codes: AMH2020; EUH2001; WOH2022

Link

Peace Agreement between Alfred and Guthrum, Unknown

Description: After decades of fierce fighting between Scandinavian invaders (vikings) and kings in the British Isles, in 880 Alfred, king of Wessex, agreed a peace treaty with the Scandinavian leader Guthrum.

Date: c. 880
Location: Likely Wessex
Keywords: Social History; Military History
Course codes: EUH2000; WOH2012

Link

Platt Amendment

Description: Describes seven conditions the withdrawal of US troops from Cuba at the end of the Spanish American War.

Date: 1901
Location: USA
Keywords: Spanish American War
Course codes: AMH2020; EUH2001; WOH2022

Letters

Link

Amarna Letter 1 (EA 1), Amenhotep III

Description: From the world's earliest known diplomatic archive. A letter from the king of Egypt to the king of Babylon discussing a diplomatic marriage.

Date: Late Bronze Age c. 1350 BCE
Location: Tell el-Amarna
Keywords: Diplomacy; letter; letter; diplomatic marriage
Course codes: ASH3200; ASH3204; EUH2000; WOH2012

Link

Amarna Letter 7 (EA 7), Burnaburniash

Description: From the world's earliest known diplomatic archive. A whiny complaint letter from the king of Babylon to the king of Egypt discussing a diplomatic gift.

Date: Late Bronze Age c. 1350 BCE
Location: Tell el-Amarna, Egypt
Keywords: Diplomacy; letter; letter; diplomatic gifts
Course codes: ASH3200; ASH3204; EUH2000; WOH2012

Link

Letter about a Civilized Barbarian, Sidonius Apollinaris

Date: 454
Location: Western Roman Empire
Keywords: Rome
Course codes: EUH2000; WOH2012

Link

Letter from Henry IV to Gregory VII

Description: As Emperor Henry IV and Pope Gregory VII competed to control the appointment of bishops and other church officials, Henry issued this letter. Although addressed to Gregory (under his birth name Hildebrand), it was intended to influence a wider audience.

Date: 24 January 1076
Location: Romano-German Empire
Keywords: Social History; Political History; Religious History; History of Christianity
Course codes: EUH2000; WOH2012

Link

Letter from Queen Emma to Empress Theophanu

Description: Theophanu was a Byzantine princess who married Emperor Otto II. She was a political force within his kingdom during his lifetime and became even more powerful after his death, when she ruled as regent for their son Otto III. This letter was addressed to her from her sister-in-law, Emma, who was being held hostage.

Date: late 10th century
Location: Laon
Keywords: Political History; Gender History
Course codes: EUH2000; WOH2012

Link

Letter to Principia

Date: 409
Location: Western Roman Empire
Keywords: Principia
Course codes: EUH2000; WOH2012

Link

Zimmerman Note

Description: A secret telegram sent in January 1917 by the German Foreign Office proposing an alliance between Germany and Mexico.

Date: 1917
Location: Europe
Keywords: WWI
Course codes: AMH2020; EUH2001; WOH2022

Narratives

Link

Bonaventure's Life of St Francis

Description: Bonaventure was the leader of the Franciscans between 1257 and 1274. At his order's request, Bonaventure wrote a new account of Francis's life, and the order tried to suppress earlier accounts of Francis's life. By Bonaventure’s time, the Franciscans’ organization had expanded and changed from Francis’s day. Compare and contrast his account to first Life of St Francis, by Thomas of Celano.

Date: Commissioned 1260
Location: Italian peninsula?
Keywords: Social History; Religious History; History of Christianity
Course codes: EUH2000; WOH2012

Link

Gildas, The Fall of Britain

Description: Gildas was a churchmen who lived in the British Isles in the 5th or 6th century. His work The Ruin of Britain is a rant condemning the leaders of the Britons in Gildas's lifetime. Gildas complains that these leaders have adopted lifestyles that are too close to the lifestyles of the English-speaking invaders, whom Gildas despises. As part of his rant, Gildas describes the collapse of Roman rule on the island of Britain.

Date: 5th-6th century
Location: Probably the British Isles
Keywords: Social History; Economic History; Political History; Legal History
Course codes: EUH2000; WOH2012

Link

“Homer,” The Iliad, Homer

Description: Epic poem set during the Trojan War and tells of the quarrels between King Agamemnon and Achilles.

Date: c. 800-600 BCE
Location: Greece/eastern Mediterranean
Keywords: Iliad; Homer; epic
Course codes: EUH2000; WOH2012

Link

"Homer,” The Odyssey, Homer

Description: Epic poem - a sequel to The Iliad - which focuses on Odysseus after the fall of Troy.

Date: c. 800-600 BCE
Location: Greece/eastern Mediterranean
Keywords: The Odyssey; Homer; epic
Course codes: EUH2000; WOH2012

Link

Life of St Matrona, Symeon Metaphrastes

Description: There are several medieval stories about female saints who dressed and lived as men. St Matrona of Perge is notable because her historical existence can be proven through other sources.

Date: 10th century (about a 6th-century person)
Location: Eastern Roman Empire (Byzantine Empire)
Keywords: Religious History; Social History; Gender History; Queer Studies
Course codes: EUH2000; WOH2012

Link

Patrick's Confession

Description: In this work, Patrick, the bishop of Ireland, described his life: how he grew up in a Romano-British family, how he was kidnapped and sold into slavery in Ireland, how he escaped, and how he later returned to Ireland to establish churches there.

Date: 5th century
Location: Probably Ireland
Keywords: Social History; Religious History; History of Christianity
Course codes: EUH2000; WOH2012

Link

Procopius's Secret History

Description: Procopius was a Greek-speaking historian. He was born in the Middle East around 500 AD and worked for Belisarius, one of Emperor Justinian’s generals (who eventually fell afoul of Empress Thedora). Procopius wrote a History of the Wars of Justinian but at the same time he also wrote a Secret History. The Secret History presented a different view of events and which was highly critical of Justinian and Theodora.

Date: 6th century
Location: Eastern Roman Empire (Byzantine Empire)

Course codes: EUH2000; WOH2012

Link

The Deeds of God through the Franks

Description: A narrative of the First Crusade.

Date: 1107-1108
Location: Kingdom of France
Keywords: First Crusade; franks
Course codes: EUH2000; WOH2012

Link

The Descent of Ishtar/Inana, Unknown

Description: Famous myth of Inana's descent and return from Kur,

Date: C. 2100 BCE
Location: Mesopotamia
Keywords: Inana
Course codes: EUH2000; WOH2012

Link

The Story of my Misfortunes, Peter Abelard

Description: Autobiographical work of a medieval French pioneer of scholastic philosophy.

Date: c. 1140
Location: Paris, Kingdom of France
Keywords: philosophy; Peter Abelard; France
Course codes: EUH2000; WOH2012

Link

Thomas of Celano's Life of St Francis

Description: Thomas of Celano wrote the first account of the life of St Francis of Assisi, just three years after Francis’s death. Francis founded the Franciscan order, which went on to become a major force in European life, culture, and politics.

Date: 1229
Location: Italian peninsula
Keywords: Social History; Religious History; History of Christianity
Course codes: EUH2000; WOH2012

Oral Accounts

Link

Fourteen Points

Description: Speech given by Woodrow Wilson which sough peace negotiations at the end of World War I.

Date: 1918
Location: USA
Keywords: WWI
Course codes: AMH2020; EUH2001; WOH2022

Link

President Franklin Roosevelt's Annual Message to Congress, 1/6/1941

Description: Known as the "Four Freedoms" speech, Franklin Roosevelt proposes four freedoms which everyone in the world should enjoy: freedom of speech, freedom of worship, freedom from fear, and freedom from want.

Date: 1941
Location: USA
Keywords: WWII; four freedoms
Course codes: AMH2020; EUH2001; WOH2022

Other

Link

95 Theses, Martin Luther

Description: A list of propositions for an academic disputation.

Date: 1517
Location: Wittenberg, Germany, Holy Roman Empire
Keywords: religion; theology
Course codes: AMH2010; EUH2000; WOH2012

Link

Account of what peasants and tenants owed to the monastery at Prüm, Unknown

Description: Some Carolingian monasteries, such as Prüm, kept detailed records of the goods and services they demanded from people living on their lands. These documents are known as polyptyques.

Date: 893 (with later additions)
Location: Prüm
Keywords: Economic History; Social History; Religious History
Course codes: EUH2000; WOH2012

Link

Anglo-Saxon noblewoman

Date: c. 950
Location: Kingdom of England
Keywords: noblewoman
Course codes: EUH2000; WOH2012

Link

Bald's Leechbook, Unknown

Description: This collection of medical remedies includes salves, potions and even surgery for a cleft palate. While some remedies mentions elves, night goblins and devils, others challenge popular stereotypes about medieval medicine. An eye salve described in this collection has been texted in modern laboratory conditions and has proved effective against the antibiotic-resistant bacterium MRSA.

Date: c. 900-940
Location: Wessex
Keywords: Social History; History of Medicine
Course codes: EUH2000; WOH2012

Link

Canons of Lateran IV

Description: Lateran IV was an extremely important council in the history of the western European church, articulating the church's official position on a whole range of topics from transubstantiation to marriage to mendicant orders to clergy who owned dogs.

Date: 1215 AD
Location: Rome
Keywords: Social History; History of Religion; Legal History; History of Christianity; History of Judaism (cw: Antisemitism)
Course codes: EUH2000; WOH2012

Link

Colloquy (School Exercise/Dialogue about Professions)

Description: This work was originally a language-learning exercise: students of Abbot Ælfric would use a dialogue about the different professions to expand their Latin vocabulary and grammar. This exercise mentions a number of different occupations, from the enslaved ploughman to the hunter to the blacksmith to the baker and also includes some political theory, as the different characters debate whose job is the most important.

Date: 10th/11th century
Location: Kingdom of England
Keywords: Social History; Economic History; Intellectual History
Course codes: EUH2000; WOH2012

Link

Dictatus Papae

Description: A compilation of 27 statements of powers arrogated to the pope.

Date: 1075
Location: Rome
Keywords: Pope Gregory VII
Course codes: EUH2000; WOH2012

Link

Galerius's Edict of Toleration, Unknown

Description: At the end of his reign, Emperor Galerius issued this edict legalizing Christianity in the Roman Empire. This was a reversal of the policy of previous emperors, notably Diocletian, and set the stage for Emperor Constantine's overt support for Christianity.

Date: 311 AD
Location: Roman Empire
Keywords: Social History; History of Religion; Legal History
Course codes: EUH2000; WOH2012

Link

Gilgamesh Flood Story, Tablet XI, Unknown

Description: The world's original epic. The flood story, first known from a Sumerian version, shares traits in common with the beloved tale known from the Hebrew Bible.

Date: Standard Babylonian (c. 600 BCE)
Location: Babylon
Keywords: Gilgamesh; flood; Literary; Epic
Course codes: ASH3200; ASH3204; EUH2000; WOH2012

Link

Great Hymn to the Aten

Description: The longest of a number of hymn-poems written to the sun-disk deity Aten.

Date: c. 1350 BCE
Location: Egypt
Keywords: poems
Course codes: EUH2000; WOH2012

Link

In Praise of Folly

Description: A satirical work by Desiderius Erasmus which attacks the Western Church and superstitions of European society.

Date: 1509
Location: Europe
Keywords: Erasmus
Course codes: EUH2000; EUH2001; WOH2012

Link

Invitation to a birthday party, Claudia Severa

Description: Claudia Severa was the wife of a commander of a Roman fort in Britannia, on the borders of the Roman empire. This invitation gives an insight into her life and the lives of other Roman women in the area. There is a note at the end which may be in Claudia's own writing, making this tablet the earliest known example of a woman's writing in Latin from the British Isles (and arguably the earliest from the empire as a whole).

Date: 97-103 AD
Location: Vindolanda (north of what is now England)
Keywords: Social History; Gender History
Course codes: EUH2000; WOH2012

Link

Latin graffiti from the city of Pompeii, Unknown

Date: c. 79
Location: Pompeii, Roman Empire
Keywords: Pompeii; graffiti
Course codes: EUH2000; WOH2012

Link

On the Republic

Description: Dialogue regarding the Roman government.

Date: 54 BCE
Location: Roman Republic
Keywords: Cicero; political history
Course codes: EUH2000; WOH2012

Pair of poems

Description: Surviving medieval Hebrew poetry written by women is very rare. The first of these two poems as written by a woman whose name has not been recorded. She is known only as the wife of Dunaš (Dunash), a noted scholar. Her poem worries about whether Dunaš will remember her, now that he has gone to Spain. In the second poem, Dunaš replied: ‘Could I betray a woman so wise?’

Date: 10th century
Location: North Africa (?) and al-Andalus (Spain)
Keywords: Poetry; Social History; Gender History; History of Judaism
Course codes: WOH2012

Link

Politics Derived from Holy Writ, Jacques-Bénigne Bossuet

Description: A work of political theory prepared by Jacques-Bénigne Bossuet as part of his duties as tutor for Louis XIV's heir apparent, Louis, le Grand Dauphin. It is one of the purest expressions of the branch of political absolutism which historians have labeled "Divine Right Absolute Monarchy."

Date: 1670-1709
Location: Kingdom of France
Keywords: Political history; political theory; Louis XIV; Louis XV
Course codes: EUH2000; WOH2012

Link

Rule of St Benedict

Description: As Christian monasticism spread throughout Africa, Asia, and Europe, different leaders developed different rules for the communities. One of the most influential set of rules was written by Benedict of Nursia in the early 6th century. It spread throughout Western Europe and was later promoted by Charlemagne and other leaders. Benedictine communities were some of the wealthiest and most powerful religious houses throughout the Middle Ages.

Date: Early 6th century
Location: Italian peninsula
Keywords: Religious History; Intellectual History; Social History

Link

Second Treatise of Government, John Locke

Description: Outlines a theory of civil society. Locke begins by describing the state of nature, a picture much more stable than Thomas Hobbes' state of "war of every man against every man," and argues that all men are created equal in the state of nature by God

Date: 1689
Location: Kingdom of Great Britain
Keywords: theory of civil society
Course codes: AMH2010; EUH2000; WOH2012

Link

The Book of the Dead, Unknown

Description: The book of the dead was used to provide information about the perilous journey into the afterlife.

Date: c. 1500 BCE
Location: Egypt
Keywords: Afterlife; Religious text
Course codes: EUH2000; WOH2012; ASH3200; ASH3204

Link

The Deeds of the Divine Augustus

Description: First-person record of the life and accomplishments of Augustus.

Date: 14
Location: Roman Empire
Keywords: Augustus
Course codes: EUH2000; WOH2012

Link

The Epic of Gilgamesh

Description: Andrew George's magnum opus, the definitive critical edition on the ancient Epic of Gilgamesh.

Date: Sumerian-Babylonian
Location: Mesopotamia
Keywords: Gilgamesh; critical edition
Course codes: ASH3200; ASH3204; EUH2000; WOH2012

Link

The Hebrew Bible, Anthology

Description: The scholarly NRSV version of the Bible online with ability to cross-reference other translations.

Date: c. 500 BCE
Location: Israel
Keywords: Bible; Historical; Political; Legal; Religious
Course codes: EUH2000; WOH2012; ASH3200; ASH3204

Link

The Story of Sinuhe, Unknown

Description: A classic literary tale of an Egyptian prodigal son who travels north to Syria and returns home once more.

Date: Middle Kingdom, c. 1850
Location: Egypt
Keywords: Sinuhe; literary
Course codes: EUH2000; WOH2012; ASH3200; ASH3204

Link

The University of Paris’s proposed solutions to the papal schism, Unknown

Description: A split within the Catholic Church in which two men simultaneously claimed to be the true pope, and each excommunicated the other.

Date: 1393
Location: Paris, Kingdom of France
Keywords: Western Schism
Course codes: EUH2000; WOH2012