CIRS - Curriculum Inquiry and Related Studies in Educational Research: A Searchable Bibliography of Selected Studies is a database of research studies that focuses primarily on curriculum practices and policies in education, inquiry methods useful in studying these topics, and exemplary studies from the published literature on these topics. This bibliography features a search capability by which a user can readily draw out from this list of nearly 4000 (and continually expanding) citations a list of those citations of interest on a specific topic. It covers much of the 20th century and 21st century literature to date. Each citation is accompanied by a brief annotation of its contents and by a series of descriptors by which it can be located in a search of the entire bibliography. To see what appears in a full citation, see a citation in the list below. This list, by the way, contains all the citations available in CIRS and can be browsed here if desired.

For searching or printing help, visit the Tips for Using the CIRS Database page. For more information about this database, click on any of the following links: About the Bibliography; Significance; About the Compiler.

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Whitford, Betty Lou, and Victor S. Vance, "It Bears Repeating: The Legacy of the Eight Year Study," The High School Journal , 62(May, 1979), 350-353.*, Betty Lou Whitford and Victor S. Vance

Annotation: Reviews the Eight Year Study and its legacy.

Broad Topical Focus: Curriculum Development, Organization, Design
Source Discipline: Curriculum
Mode of Inquiry in the Study: Historical Inquiry
Type of Study: Single Study
Narrow Topic: Classics of Curriculum Literature

Whitson, James A., "Decomposing Curriculum, vs Curriculum-as-Text," Journal of Curriculum and Pedagogy, 5(Summer, 2008), 111-137., James A. Whitson

Annotation: Discusses and critiques the prevailing understandings of these two conceptions of curriculum; suggests ways curriculum inquiry can take into account the interweaving dimensions of curriculum realities including not only the formal textual aspects but also those embracing the formative experiences of the individual.

Broad Topical Focus: Curriculum Conceptions and Theories
Source Discipline: Curriculum
Mode of Inquiry in the Study: Philosophical Inquiry-Speculative Essay
Type of Study: Single Study
Narrow Topic: Curriculum Frameworks, Curriculum as Experience

Whitson, James A., "Post-Structuralist Pedagogy as a Counter-Hegemonic Praxis (Can We Find the Baby in the Bathwater?)" Education and Society, 9 (No. 1 & 2, 1991), 74-87., James A. Whitson

Annotation: Reviews literature related to critical pedagogy and argues its role in confronting hegemonic praxis.

Broad Topical Focus: Curriculum Enactment and Teaching
Source Discipline: Education
Mode of Inquiry in the Study: Hermeneutic Inquiry
Type of Study: Single Study
Narrow Topic: Teaching/Learning Process, Value Assumptions and Ideologies in Curriculum, Conceptions of Teaching

Whitson, James A., "Post-Structuralist Re-Interpretations," pp. 211-277 in James A. Whitson, Constitution and Curriculum: Hermeneutical Semiotics of Cases and Controversies in Education, Law, and Social Science. Philadelphia: The Falmer Press, 1991.*, James A. Whitson

Annotation: Describes the hermeneutics of dialogical inquiry in the context of judicial discourses in educational law and other fields.

Broad Topical Focus: Curriculum Inquiry Guidelines, Curriculum Policies and Policy Making
Source Discipline: Education
Mode of Inquiry in the Study: Hermeneutic Inquiry
Type of Study: Single Study
Narrow Topic: Knowledge Generation, Freedom/Authority and Curriculum

Whitson, James A., "The Politics of 'Non-Political' Curriculum: Heteroglossia and the Discourse of 'Choice' and 'Effectiveness'," pp. 279-330 in William F. Pinar, ed., Contemporary Curriculum Discourses. Scottsdale, AZ: Gorsuch Scarisbrick, 1988.*, James A. Whitson

Annotation: Examines censorship, choice, and school effectiveness from analytic, critical, and legal perspectives.

Broad Topical Focus: Curriculum Decision-making Processes, Curriculum Contexts and Societal Influences, Curriculum Conceptions and Theories, Inquiry Language in Curriculum Research, Curriculum Evaluation
Source Discipline: Curriculum
Mode of Inquiry in the Study: Philosophical Inquiry-Ampliative Criticism, Critical Inquiry
Type of Study: Single Study
Narrow Topic: Curriculum and Politics, Local Control of Schooling, Freedom/Authority and Curriculum, Discourse Analysis, Curriculum Aims and Objectives, Content Selection and Organization, Hidden Curriculum

Whitson, James Anthony, Constitution and Curriculum: Hermeneutical Semiotics of Cases and Controversies in Education, Law, and Social Science. Philadelphia, PA: Falmer Press, 1991., James Anthony Whitson

Annotation: Presents a series of court cases on educational controversies and describes the theories of interpretation applied to them; also explains structural semiotics and post-structural re-interpretations.

Broad Topical Focus: Curriculum Policies and Policy Making, Curriculum Inquiry Guidelines
Source Discipline: Curriculum
Mode of Inquiry in the Study: Hermeneutic Inquiry
Type of Study: Single Study
Narrow Topic: Knowledge Generation, Local Control of Schooling, Curriculum and Politics

Whitson, James Anthony, "Is There No Outside of Curriculum-as-Text?" pp. 339-354 in Eero Ropo and Tero Autio, eds., International Conversations on Curriculum Studies: Subject, Society, and Curriculum. Rotterdam: Sense Publishers, 2009., James Anthony Whitson

Annotation: Discusses the differences between scholarly and popular conceptions of curriculum; examines the differences between curriculum-as-text and curriculum-as-life or -being; suggests implications for research and for practice.

Broad Topical Focus: Curriculum Conceptions and Theories
Source Discipline: Curriculum
Mode of Inquiry in the Study: Theoretical/Conceptual Inquiry
Type of Study: Single Study
Narrow Topic: Curriculum Theory Creation and Uses, Value Assumptions and Ideologies in Curriculum, Curriculum Aims and Objectives, Curriculum as Experience

Whitson, James Anthony, "The Politics of 'Non-Political' Curriculum: Heteroglossia and the Discourse of 'Choice' and 'Effectiveness'," pp. 279-330 in William F. Pinar, ed., Contemporary Curriculum Discourses. Scottsdale, AZ: Gorsuch Scarisbrick, l988., James Anthony Whitson

Annotation: Critiques the political use of educational choice and educational effectiveness by the political right; places this critique within antipositivist perspective of Freire, Bakhtin, and others.

Broad Topical Focus: Curriculum Policies and Policy Making
Source Discipline: Curriculum
Mode of Inquiry in the Study: Critical Inquiry
Type of Study: Single Study
Narrow Topic: Curriculum and Politics, Value Assumptions and Ideologies in Curriculum

Whitty, Geoff, "Curriculum Studies: A Critique of Some Recent British Orthodoxies," pp. 48-70 in Martin Lawn and Len Barton, eds., Rethinking Curriculum Studies. New York: Halsted Press, 1981., Geoff Whitty

Annotation: Critiques work of Lawton in Britain from the perspective of the new sociology of knowledge.

Broad Topical Focus: Curriculum Contexts and Societal Influences,Curriculum Theorists
Source Discipline: Curriculum
Mode of Inquiry in the Study: Philosophical Inquiry-Ampliative Criticism,Critical Inquiry
Type of Study: Single Study
Narrow Topic: Curriculum and Politics, Ideology and School Knowledge, Comparative Curriculum

Whitty, Geoff, Sociology and School Knowledge: Curriculum Theory, Research, and Politics . London: Methuen, 1985., Geoff Whitty

Annotation: Explores the political and social issues in curriculum from the perspective of critical sociology of knowledge.

Broad Topical Focus: Curriculum Contexts and Societal Influences, Curriculum Development, Organization, Design
Source Discipline: Curriculum
Mode of Inquiry in the Study: Critical Inquiry
Type of Study: Single Study
Narrow Topic: Ideology and School Knowledge

Whitty, Geoff, with others, Research and Policy in Education: Evidence, Ideology, and Impact. London: Institute of Education Press, 2016., Geoff Whitty

Annotation: Reviews the author's work in Sociology of Education as well as that of other key contributors; examines issues in the use (or non-use) of work done by sociologists of education and by educational policy workers in Britain.

Broad Topical Focus: Curriculum Inquiry Guidelines, Curriculum Policies and Policy Making
Source Discipline: Education
Mode of Inquiry in the Study: Critical Inquiry
Type of Study: Status Study
Narrow Topic: Knowledge Generation, Curriculum and Politics, Comparative Curriculum, Ideology and School Knowledge

Whitty, Geoff, and Michael Young, eds., Explorations in the Politics of School Knowledge. Nafferton, England: Nafferton Books, 1976., Geoff Whitty and Michael Young

Annotation: Provides an introduction to the politics of school knowledge involved in several school subjects.

Broad Topical Focus: Curriculum Policies and Policy Making
Source Discipline: Curriculum
Mode of Inquiry in the Study: Critical Inquiry
Type of Study: Collection of Studies
Narrow Topic: Curriculum and Politics, School Subjects

Wiess, Carol H., "The Four 'I's' of School Reform: How Interests, Ideology, Information, and Institutuion Affect Teachers and Principals," Harvard Educational Review, 65 (Winter, 1995), 571-592., Carol H. Wiess

Annotation: Reports the effect of the interaction of the four "i's" in shared decision-making in 12 public high schools and discusses the implications for school reform.

Broad Topical Focus: Curriculum Policies and Policy Making, Curriculum Decision-making Processes, Curriculum Contexts and Societal Influences, Curriculum Change
Source Discipline: Curriculum
Mode of Inquiry in the Study: Scientific/Empirical Inquiry
Type of Study: Single Study
Narrow Topic: Value Assumptions and Ideologies in Curriculum

Wiggins, Grant, "Curricular Coherence and Assessment: Making Sure that the Effect Matches the Intent," pp. 101-119 in James A. Beane, ed., Toward a Coherent Curriculum. Alexandria,VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, 1995., Grant Wiggins

Annotation: Discusses ways to achieve coherence in curriculum and its enactment.

Broad Topical Focus: Curriculum Enactment and Teaching, Curriculum Development, Organization, Design
Source Discipline: Curriculum
Mode of Inquiry in the Study: Theoretical/Conceptual Inquiry
Type of Study: Single Study
Narrow Topic: Program Audit/Evaluation, Student Assessment

Wilcox, Brian, "Curriculum Analysis and Review," pp. 625-636 in Noel Entwistle, ed., Handbook of Educational Ideas and Practices . New York: Routledge, 1990.*, Brian Wilcox

Annotation: Summarizes ways of conducting curriculum evaluation in British educational setting.

Broad Topical Focus: Curriculum Development, Organization, Design, Curriculum Evaluation
Source Discipline: Curriculum
Mode of Inquiry in the Study: Evaluative Inquiry
Type of Study: Single Study
Narrow Topic: Program Audit/Evaluation, Comparative Curriculum

Wiles, Kimball, and Woodrow Sugg, "Factors Influencing Curriculum Development," Review of Educational Research, 24(June, 1954), 195-203., Kimball Wiles and Woodrow Sugg

Annotation: Gives brief overview of influence of laymen and educators and needed research.

Broad Topical Focus: Curriculum Contexts and Societal Influences
Source Discipline: Curriculum
Mode of Inquiry in the Study: Integrative Inquiry
Type of Study: Research Synthesis
Narrow Topic: Curriculum and Politics

Willbergh, Ilmi, "The Problems of 'Competence' and Alternatives from the Scandivavion Perspective of Bildung," Journal of Curriculum Studies, 47(No.3, 2015), 334-354., Ilmi Willbergh

Annotation: Presents a theoretical analysis of both competence and Bildung: explores the question of what should be learned in school and offers an alternative to competence-based models with a revised concept of Bildung in an effort to bridge the gap between schooling and the real world.

Broad Topical Focus: Curriculum Conceptions and Theories
Source Discipline: Curriculum
Mode of Inquiry in the Study: Philosophical Inquiry-Ampliative Criticism
Type of Study: Single Study
Narrow Topic: Content Selection and Organization, Value Assumptions and Ideologies in Curriculum

William, Dylan, "What Should Education Research Do, and How Should It Do It?" Educational Researcher, 37(October, 2008), 432-438., Dylan William

Annotation: Draws on concepts from Aristotle, Churchman, and Nonaks & Takeuchi to analyze research and inquiry in education; supports a practical, clinical model of research.

Broad Topical Focus: Curriculum Inquiry Guidelines
Source Discipline: Education
Mode of Inquiry in the Study: Philosophical Inquiry-Speculative Essay
Type of Study: Single Study
Narrow Topic: Knowledge Generation, Practical Knowledge

Williams, C. Ray, Albert R. Neff, and James H. Finklestein, "Theory Into Practice: Reconsidering the Preposition," Theory into Practice, 20(Spring, 1981), 93-96.*, C. Ray Williams, Albert R. Neff, and James H. Finklestein

Annotation: Argues that putting theory into practice overlooks the fact that they are intertwined and should be studied as an interactive whole.

Broad Topical Focus: Relation of Curriculum Research to Practice
Source Discipline: Education
Mode of Inquiry in the Study: Philosophical Inquiry-Speculative Essay
Type of Study: Single Study
Narrow Topic: Teacher Knowledge, In-service Teacher Development

Williams, David D., "Naturalistic Evaluation: Potential Conflicts Between Evaluation Standards and Criteria for Conducting Naturalistic Inquiry," Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 8(Spring, 1986), 87-99., David D. Williams

Annotation: Discusses standards for judging evaluations, criteria for judging naturalistic inquiry, and the conflicts between these.

Broad Topical Focus: Curriculum Inquiry Guidelines
Source Discipline: Education
Mode of Inquiry in the Study: Ethnographic Inquiry, Evaluative Inquiry
Type of Study: Single Study
Narrow Topic: Knowledge Generation, Program Audit/Evaluation

Willinsky, John, "Getting Personal and Practical with Personal Practical Knowledge," Curriculum Inquiry, 19(Fall, 1989), 247-264., John Willinsky

Annotation: Identifies some limitations of Clandinin and Connelly's research on personal practical knowledge.

Broad Topical Focus: Curriculum Theorists, Curriculum Inquiry Guidelines
Source Discipline: Curriculum
Mode of Inquiry in the Study: Philosophical Inquiry-Ampliative Criticism, Narrative Inquiry
Type of Study: Single Study
Narrow Topic: Knowledge Generation, Practical Knowledge, Teacher Knowledge

Willinsky, John, "Just Say Know? Schooling the Knowledge Society," Educational Theory, 55(No. 1, 2005), 97-111., John Willinsky

Annotation: Reviews and critiques three books (Andy Hargraves, Barry Smith, Peter Jarvis) on the knowledge society and its implications for schooling.

Broad Topical Focus: Curriculum Contexts and Societal Influences, Curriculum Visions and Philosophies, Curriculum Policies and Policy Making, Curriculum Development, Organization, Design
Source Discipline: Education
Mode of Inquiry in the Study: Philosophical Inquiry-Ampliative Criticism
Type of Study: Single Study
Narrow Topic: Content Selection and Organization, Curriculum Aims and Objectives, Ethical Issues in Curriculum, Value Assumptions and Ideologies in Curriculum

Willinsky, John, Learning to Divide the World: Education at Empire's End. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press, 1998., John Willinsky

Annotation: Critiques the imperialist perspectives on which much current curricula are based; examines school texts that reveal colonialist themes in history, geography, science, language, and literature.

Broad Topical Focus: Curriculum Development, Organization, Design
Source Discipline: Curriculum
Mode of Inquiry in the Study: Critical Inquiry
Type of Study: Single Study
Narrow Topic: Value Assumptions and Ideologies in Curriculum, Textbooks, Content Selection and Organization

Willinsky, John, "Scientific Research in a Democratic Culture: Or What's a Social Science For?" Teachers College Record, 107(January, 2005), 38-51., John Willinsky

Annotation: Urges open access publishing models for educational research to widen access to the public and to policymakers; critiques the concept of scientific research dissemination found in National Research Council's 2002 report , "Scientific Research in Education."

Broad Topical Focus: Critique and Utilization of Curriculum Research and Inquiry, Publication Outlets for Curriculum Research and Inquiry, Curriculum Inquiry Guidelines, Curriculum Research and Inquiry-General
Source Discipline: Education
Mode of Inquiry in the Study: Philosophical Inquiry-Speculative Essay
Type of Study: Single Study
Narrow Topic: Knowledge Utilization, Knowledge Generation, Knowledge Linkage, Government Role in Educational Research & Development

Willinsky, John, Technologies of Knowing: A Proposal for the Human Sciences. Boston, MA: Beacon Press, 1999., John Willinsky

Annotation: Sets forth a plan for a corporation called Automata Data to handle the integration and disssemination via the internet of social science research.

Broad Topical Focus: Curriculum Research and Inquiry-General, Curriculum as a Field of Practice and Study, Publication Outlets for Curriculum Research and Inquiry
Source Discipline: Field other than Education
Mode of Inquiry in the Study: Philosophical Inquiry-Speculative Essay, Integrative Inquiry
Type of Study: Single Study
Narrow Topic: Knowledge Utilization

Willinsky, John, The Access Principle: The Case for Open Access to Research and Scholarship. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2006., John Willinsky

Annotation: Provides a thorough analysis of the potential of on-line research publication and retrieval using new open access systems world-wide; makes the case for such systems and illustrates many of the needed elements that are already in place.

Broad Topical Focus: Publication Outlets for Curriculum Research and Inquiry, Critique and Utilization of Curriculum Research and Inquiry
Source Discipline: Field other than Education
Mode of Inquiry in the Study: Philosophical Inquiry-Speculative Essay
Type of Study: Single Study
Narrow Topic: Knowledge Linkage

Willinsky, John, "The Strategic Education Research Program and the Public Value of Research," Educational Researcher, 30(January/February, 2001), 5-14., John Willinsky

Annotation: Critiques a research program of the U. S. National Research Council for its narrow focus on translating research into means of enlarging student learning rather than on broader, deliberative policy alternatives.

Broad Topical Focus: Curriculum Policies and Policy Making, Curriculum Research and Inquiry-General, Relation of Curriculum Research to Practice, Curriculum Inquiry Guidelines
Source Discipline: Education
Mode of Inquiry in the Study: Philosophical Inquiry-Ampliative Criticism
Type of Study: Single Study
Narrow Topic: Knowledge Utilization, Comparative Curriculum

Willis, George, "Creating Curriculum Knowledge from Students' Phenomenologies," pp. 45-48 in William H. Schubert and Ann L. Schubert, eds., Conceptions of Curriculum Knowledge: Focus on Students and Teachers . University Park, PA: College of Education, Penn State University, 1982., George Willis

Annotation: Explains this type of inquiry resulting in descriptions of students' life-worlds, interpretations of their meaning, and suggestions for practical action.

Broad Topical Focus: Curriculum Inquiry Guidelines
Source Discipline: Curriculum
Mode of Inquiry in the Study: Phenomenological Inquiry
Type of Study: Single Study
Narrow Topic: Curriculum as Experience, Knowledge Generation

Willis, George, "Curriculum Evaluation: Qualitative," pp. 1284-1288 in Torsten Husen and Thomas N. Postlethwaite, eds., The International Encyclopedia of Education, 2d ed. New York: Pergamon, 1994.*, George Willis

Annotation: Characterizes qualitative curriculum evaluation, traces its origins, outlines its principle activities and aims, and describes one form known as educational connoisseurship and criticism.

Broad Topical Focus: Curriculum Evaluation, Curriculum Inquiry Guidelines
Source Discipline: Curriculum
Mode of Inquiry in the Study: Integrative Inquiry, Evaluative Inquiry
Type of Study: Status Study
Narrow Topic: Knowledge Generation, Qualitative Research

Willis, George, "Curriculum Evaluation, Qualitative," pp.209-212 in Torsten Husen and Thomas N. Postlethwaite, eds., International Encyclopedia of Education, Supplement Volume One. New York: Pergamon, 1988., George Willis

Annotation: Describes the origins, procedures, and aims of qualitative forms of curriculum evaluation.

Broad Topical Focus: Curriculum Evaluation, Curriculum Inquiry Guidelines
Source Discipline: Curriculum
Mode of Inquiry in the Study: Integrative Inquiry, Evaluative Inquiry
Type of Study: Status Study
Narrow Topic: Knowledge Generation, Qualitative Research

Willis, George, "Curriculum Theory and the Context of Curriculum," Curriculum Theory Network, 6(Winter, 1970-71), 41-59. Reprinted pp.427-444 in William F. Pinar, ed., Curriculum Theorizing . Berkeley, CA: McCutchan, 1975., George Willis

Annotation: Discusses the experiential context of the curriculum and the need to create educational environments that enhance the quality of children's experience.

Broad Topical Focus: Curriculum Conceptions and Theories, Curriculum Enactment and Teaching, Curriculum Inquiry Guidelines
Source Discipline: Curriculum
Mode of Inquiry in the Study: Aesthetic Inquiry and Curriculum Criticism
Type of Study: Single Study
Narrow Topic: Knowledge Generation, Curriculum as Environment, Curriculum as Experience

Willis, George, "Democratization of Curriculum Evaluation," Educational Leadership, 38(May, 1981), 630-632., George Willis

Annotation: Discusses the process of curriculum criticism and its use in democratizing curriculum evaluation.

Broad Topical Focus: Curriculum Inquiry Guidelines, Curriculum Evaluation
Source Discipline: Curriculum
Mode of Inquiry in the Study: Aesthetic Inquiry and Curriculum Criticism, Evaluative Inquiry
Type of Study: Single Study
Narrow Topic: Knowledge Generation

Willis, George, ed., Qualitative Evaluation : Concepts and Cases in Curriculum Criticism. Berkeley, CA: McCutchan, 1978., George Willis

Annotation: Contains six articles on the nature of qualitative evaluation in curriculum; 13 reports of such studies are included; comments on this approach are presented in three final chapters.

Broad Topical Focus: Curriculum Evaluation, Curriculum Inquiry Guidelines
Source Discipline: Curriculum
Mode of Inquiry in the Study: Evaluative Inquiry, Theoretical/Conceptual Inquiry
Type of Study: Collection of Studies
Narrow Topic: Knowledge Generation, Qualitative Research

Willis, George, "Phenomenological Inquiry: Life-World Perceptions," pp. 173-186 in Edmund C. Short, ed., Forms of Curriculum Inquiry . Albany, NY: SUNY Press, 1991.*, George Willis

Annotation: Describes the processes of phenomenological inquiry in curriculum.

Broad Topical Focus: Curriculum Inquiry Guidelines
Source Discipline: Curriculum
Mode of Inquiry in the Study: Phenomenological Inquiry
Type of Study: Single Study
Narrow Topic: Knowledge Generation

Willis, George, "Phenomenological Methodologies in Curriculum," The Journal of Curriculum Theorizing, 1(Winter, 1979), 65-79.*, George Willis

Annotation: Describes some issues surrounding the use of the term phenomenology in the curriculum field and tries to associate it with methodologies that illuminate the nature of human experiencing.

Broad Topical Focus: Curriculum Inquiry Guidelines
Source Discipline: Curriculum
Mode of Inquiry in the Study: Phenomenological Inquiry
Type of Study: Single Study
Narrow Topic: Knowledge Generation

Willis, George, "The Corpus and the Incorporeal of Curriculum," Curriculum Inquiry, 19(Spring, 1989), 71-96.*, George Willis

Annotation: Reviews Schubert's book, Curriculum : Perspective, Paradigm, and Possibilitity, in religious terms.

Broad Topical Focus: Curriculum Conceptions and Theories, Curriculum as a Field of Practice and Study
Source Discipline: Curriculum
Mode of Inquiry in the Study: Religious Inquiry
Type of Study: Single Study
Narrow Topic: Literature of Curriculum, Curriculum History

Willis, George, "The Human Problems and Possibilities of Curriculum Evaluation," pp. 315-333 in George Willis, ed., The Curriculum: Problems, Politics, and Possibilities . Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1988. Also pp. 339-357 in 2nd ed., 1998.*, George Willis

Annotation: Traces the history of curriculum evaluation and seeks to replace technical evaluation approaches with those responsive to a human ideology of the type described by James Macdonald.

Broad Topical Focus: Curriculum Evaluation, Defining Curriculum Research Questions
Source Discipline: Curriculum
Mode of Inquiry in the Study: Evaluative Inquiry
Type of Study: Single Study
Narrow Topic: Value Assumptions and Ideologies in Curriculum, Curriculum History

Willis, George, and Anthony J. Allen, "Patterns of Phenomenological Response to Curricula: Implications," pp. 32-71 in George Willis, ed., Qualitative Evaluation . Berkeley, CA: McCutchan, 1978.*, George Willis and Anthony J. Allen

Annotation: Describes phenomenological inquiry procedures and offers an example.

Broad Topical Focus: Curriculum Inquiry Guidelines, Curriculum Enactment and Teaching
Source Discipline: Curriculum
Mode of Inquiry in the Study: Phenomenological Inquiry
Type of Study: Single Study
Narrow Topic: Knowledge Generation, Curriculum as Experience

Willis, George H., "A Reconceptualist Perspective on Curriculum Evaluation," The Journal of Curriculum Theorizing, 3(Winter, 1981), 185-192.*, George H. Willis

Annotation: Describes the processes used in reconceptualist curriculum evaluation and contrasts them with those of the dominant (scientific) form.

Broad Topical Focus: Curriculum Evaluation
Source Discipline: Curriculum
Mode of Inquiry in the Study: Evaluative Inquiry, Philosophical Inquiry-Conceptual Analysis, Aesthetic Inquiry and Curriculum Criticism, Philosophical Inquiry-Ampliative Criticism
Type of Study: Single Study
Narrow Topic: Knowledge Generation

Willis, George H., "Curriculum Criticism and Literary Criticism," Journal of Curriculum Studies, 7(May, 1975), 3-17. Reprinted pp. 91-111 in George H. Willis, ed., Qualitative Evaluation. Berkeley, CA: McCutchan, 1978.*, George H. Willis

Annotation: Describes the parallel between literary criticism and criticism of curriculum together with analysis of examples.

Broad Topical Focus: Curriculum Inquiry Guidelines
Source Discipline: Curriculum
Mode of Inquiry in the Study: Aesthetic Inquiry and Curriculum Criticism
Type of Study: Single Study
Narrow Topic: Knowledge Generation

Willis, George, and William H. Schubert, ed., Reflections from the Heart of Educational Inquiry: Understanding Curriculum and Teaching through the Arts. Albany, NY: SUNY Press, 1991., George Willis and William H. Schubert

Annotation: Gives 33 views and illustrations from leading curriculum theorists of how the arts afffect teaching, curriculum, and inquiry on curriculum.

Broad Topical Focus: Curriculum Conceptions and Theories, Curriculum Enactment and Teaching, Curriculum Theorists
Source Discipline: Curriculum
Mode of Inquiry in the Study: Aesthetic Inquiry and Curriculum Criticism
Type of Study: Collection of Studies
Narrow Topic: Aesthetics and Curriculum, Curriculum Professors, Art Education

Willis, George, William H. Schubert, Robert V. Bullough, Jr., Craig Kridel, and John T. Holton, eds., The American Curriculum: A Documentary History. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1993., George Willis, William H. Schubert, Robert V. Bullough Jr., Craig Kridel, and John T. Holton

Annotation: Reprints 36 documents of historical significance in U. S. curriculum history from 1642 to 1983.

Broad Topical Focus: Curriculum Policies and Policy Making, Curriculum Development, Organization, Design
Source Discipline: Curriculum
Mode of Inquiry in the Study: Historical Inquiry
Type of Study: Collection of Studies
Narrow Topic: Curriculum History, Classics of Curriculum Literature, Literature of Curriculum

Willower, Donald J., "Epistemology, Science, and Moral Practice," Interchange, 32(March, 2001), 1-16., Donald J. Willower

Annotation: Gives in-depth treatment of the nature of scientific inquiry and of contemporary criticisms of it; relates ethical values to inquiry.

Broad Topical Focus: Curriculum Research and Inquiry-General, Critique and Utilization of Curriculum Research and Inquiry, Curriculum Inquiry Guidelines
Source Discipline: Education
Mode of Inquiry in the Study: Philosophical Inquiry-Speculative Essay, Scientific/Empirical Inquiry
Type of Study: Single Study
Narrow Topic: Value Assumptions and Ideologies in Curriculum, Knowledge Generation

Wilson, Bruce L., and Gretchen B. Rossman, Mandating Academic Excellence: High School Responses to State Curriculum Reform. New York: Teachers College Press, 1993., Bruce L. Wilson and Gretchen B. Rossman

Annotation: Reports an examination of five schools' responses to Maryland's increased course requirements of 1985 by RBS researchers with implications for the role of policy changes in school reform.

Broad Topical Focus: Curriculum Policies and Policy Making, Curriculum Change
Source Discipline: Curriculum
Mode of Inquiry in the Study: Scientific/Empirical Inquiry, Ethnographic Inquiry
Type of Study: Survey
Narrow Topic: Core Mandates, Secondary School Curriculum

Wilson, Elizabeth C., "Designing Instructional Curricula: A Case Study of Curriclum Practice," pp. 209-239 in John Goodland and Associates, Curriculum Inquiry: The Study of Curriculum Practice . New York: McGraw Hill, 1979., Elizabeth C. Wilson

Annotation: Describes a local school district's use of Goodlad's conceptualization of the various levels of curriculum decision-making.

Broad Topical Focus: Curriculum Decision-making Processes
Source Discipline: Curriculum
Mode of Inquiry in the Study: Theoretical/Conceptual Inquiry
Type of Study: Case Study
Narrow Topic: Curriculum Development Strategies

Wilson, John, "The Curriculum: Justification and Taxonomy," British Journal of Educational Studies, 17(February, 1969), 36-40., John Wilson

Annotation: Describes facets of justifying and ordering the curriculum.

Broad Topical Focus: Curriculum Policies and Policy Making,Curriculum Decision-making Processes,Curriculum Development, Organization, Design
Source Discipline: Curriculum
Mode of Inquiry in the Study: Theoretical/Conceptual Inquiry,Normative Inquiry
Type of Study: Single Study
Narrow Topic: Content Selection and Organization

Wilson, John, "The Curriculum: Justification and Taxonomy," British Journal of Educational Studies, 17(February, 1969), 36-40., John Wilson

Annotation: Discusses questions related to curriculum rationales and classifications.

Broad Topical Focus: Curriculum Proposals in Coherent Form, Curriculum Policies and Policy Making
Source Discipline: Curriculum
Mode of Inquiry in the Study: Historical Inquiry
Type of Study: Single Study
Narrow Topic: Curriculum History, Value Assumptions and Ideologies in Curriculum, Curriculum Deliberation

Winch, Christopher, "Constructing Worthwhile Curriculum," Journal of Philosophy of Education, 30(No. 1,1996), 45-56., Christopher Winch

Annotation: Examines arguments for compromising on what subjects should be selected for the curriculum (for a common core and for a diversity of options).

Broad Topical Focus: Curriculum Conceptions and Theories, Curriculum Development, Organization, Design
Source Discipline: Curriculum
Mode of Inquiry in the Study: Philosophical Inquiry-Ampliative Criticism
Type of Study: Single Study
Narrow Topic: Content Selection and Organization, Curriculum Deliberation, Curriculum Aims and Objectives

Winch, Christopher, "Curriculum Design and Epistemic Ascent," Journal of Philosophy of Education, 47(February, 2013), 128-146., Christopher Winch

Annotation: Discusses knowledge by acquaintance, propositional knowledge, and how-to knowledge in relation to both academic knowledge and practical knowledge; shows practical implications for curriculum design.

Broad Topical Focus: Curriculum Development, Organization, Design
Source Discipline: Curriculum
Mode of Inquiry in the Study: Philosophical Inquiry-Speculative Essay, Theoretical/Conceptual Inquiry
Type of Study: Single Study
Narrow Topic: Comparative Curriculum, Content Selection and Organization, Curriculum and the Disciplines, Practical Knowledge

Winch, Christopher, "The Aims of Education Revisited," Journal of Philosophy of Education, 30(No. 1, 1996), 33-44., Christopher Winch

Annotation: Clarifies the necessary process of negotiating differences among values in the public sphere in order to articulate the aims of education; cites example of failure to to this in Great Britain.

Broad Topical Focus: Curriculum Conceptions and Theories, Curriculum Decision-making Processes, Curriculum Policies and Policy Making
Source Discipline: Curriculum
Mode of Inquiry in the Study: Philosophical Inquiry-Speculative Essay
Type of Study: Single Study
Narrow Topic: Curriculum Aims and Objectives

Winchester, Ian, "Concept Elucidation and Educational Issues," Curriculum Inquiry, 7(Winter, 1977), 331-342., Ian Winchester

Annotation: Critiques a study by Richard Derr on elucidation of the concept "curriculum." A response by Derr follows.

Broad Topical Focus: Curriculum Definitions, Curriculum Conceptions and Theories, Curriculum Inquiry Guidelines
Source Discipline: Curriculum
Mode of Inquiry in the Study: Philosophical Inquiry-Conceptual Analysis
Type of Study: Single Study
Narrow Topic: Curriculum Theory Creation and Uses

Winfield, Ann G., "Eugenics and Social Control: Patterns and Influences in Current Thought," pp. 121-137 in Lesley Coia and others, eds., Democratic Responses in an Era of Standardization. Troy, NY: Educator's International Press, 2004., Ann G. Winfield

Annotation: Discusses the nature and influence of eugenics as an ideology on curriculum and other educational policies, both past and present.

Broad Topical Focus: Curriculum Contexts and Societal Influences
Source Discipline: Curriculum
Mode of Inquiry in the Study: Historical Inquiry
Type of Study: Single Study
Narrow Topic: Curriculum History, Social Efficiency/Control, Value Assumptions and Ideologies in Curriculum

Winter, Richard, Action-Research and the Nature of Social Inquiry: Professional Innovation and Education Work . London: Avebury, Gower, Aldershot, 1987., Richard Winter

Annotation: Deals with the lack of coherent theoretical rationale for action research; proposes two analytic principles (dialectical and reflexive) in a critical perspective.

Broad Topical Focus: Curriculum Inquiry Guidelines
Source Discipline: Education
Mode of Inquiry in the Study: Action Inquiry, Critical Inquiry
Type of Study: Single Study
Narrow Topic: Knowledge Generation

Wirt, Frederick M., and Michael W. Kirst, "Curricular Decisions in the Political System," pp. 202-225 in Fredrick M.Wirt and Michael W. Kirst, The Political Web of American Schools . Boston: Little Brown and Co, 1972. Revised edition, 1975, under the title Political and Social Foundations of Education. Berkley, CA: McCutchan., Frederick M. Wirt and Michael W. Kirst

Annotation: Revises and extends their 1971 RER article, "An Analysis of Curriculum Policy-Making." (Kirst, first author)

Broad Topical Focus: Curriculum Policies and Policy Making
Source Discipline: Curriculum
Mode of Inquiry in the Study: Integrative Inquiry
Type of Study: Research Synthesis
Narrow Topic: Curriculum and Politics

Wirth, Arthur, "A Reconstituted General Education: The Integration of the Vocational and the Liberal," Journal of Curriculum Studies, 26(November-December, 1994), 593-600., Arthur Wirth

Annotation: Traces historical background of the attempt to integrate vocational and liberal education in the US.

Broad Topical Focus: Curriculum Policies and Policy Making, Curriculum Development, Organization, Design
Source Discipline: Curriculum
Mode of Inquiry in the Study: Historical Inquiry
Type of Study: Single Study
Narrow Topic: Curriculum History, Vocational vs. Liberal Education

Wirth, Arthur G., "Educational Control for Crazy-Making: Notes Toward an Alternative," pp. 14-17 in Laurel N. Tanner, ed., Papers of the Society for the Study of Curriculum History . University Park, PA: The Society, College of Education, Penn State University, 1986., Arthur G. Wirth

Annotation: Discusses the historical social efficiency movement in education and contemporary alternatives.

Broad Topical Focus: Curriculum Development, Organization, Design
Source Discipline: Curriculum
Mode of Inquiry in the Study: Philosophical Inquiry-Ampliative Criticism, Historical Inquiry, Critical Inquiry
Type of Study: Single Study
Narrow Topic: Curriculum History, Social Efficiency/Control

Wirth, Arthur G., Productive Work--in Industry and Schools: Becoming Persons Again . Washington, DC: University Press of America, 1983., Arthur G. Wirth

Annotation: Spells out the difference between the vocationalism of early 20th century industrialists and the model of industrial democracy poposed by John Dewey.

Broad Topical Focus: Curriculum Visions and Philosophies,Curriculum Theorists
Source Discipline: Curriculum
Mode of Inquiry in the Study: Philosophical Inquiry-Conceptual Analysis,Philosophical Inquiry-Ampliative Criticism,Critical Inquiry
Type of Study: Single Study
Narrow Topic: Vocational vs. Liberal Education, Ideology and School Knowledge, Curriculum History

Wirth, Arthur G., "What We Can Learn from our Experience with the Deweyan Tradition," pp. 3-5 in Laurel N. Tanner, ed., Papers for the Society for the Study of Curriculum History . University Park, PA: The Society, College of Education, Penn State University, 1981., Arthur G. Wirth

Annotation: Draws lessons from Dewey for curriculum.

Broad Topical Focus: Curriculum Theorists, Critique and Utilization of Curriculum Research and Inquiry
Source Discipline: Curriculum
Mode of Inquiry in the Study: Historical Inquiry
Type of Study: Single Study
Narrow Topic: Curriculum History

Wirt, John G., "A New Federal Law on Vocational Education: Will Reform Follow?" Phi Delta Kappan , 72 (February, 1991), 425-433.*, John G. Wirt

Annotation: Describes new federal legislation based on the integration of academic and vocational education.

Broad Topical Focus: Curriculum Development, Organization, Design
Source Discipline: Curriculum
Mode of Inquiry in the Study: Philosophical Inquiry-Conceptual Analysis
Type of Study: Single Study
Narrow Topic: Vocational vs. Liberal Education, Content Selection and Organization

Wise, Arthur E., "Why Educational Policies Often Fail: The Hyperrationalization Hypothesis," Journal of Curriculum Studies, 9(No. 1, 1977), 43-57.*, Arthur E. Wise

Annotation: Explains the role of hyperrationalization in educational policy making and helps distinguish proper from excessive rationalization.

Broad Topical Focus: Curriculum Policies and Policy Making,Curriculum Change
Source Discipline: Education
Mode of Inquiry in the Study: Philosophical Inquiry-Conceptual Analysis,Philosophical Inquiry-Speculative Essay
Type of Study: Single Study
Narrow Topic: Value Assumptions and Ideologies in Curriculum

Wise, Robert I., "The Need for Retrospective Accounts of Curriculum Development," Journal of Curriculum Studies, 11(January-March, 1979), 17-28.*, Robert I. Wise

Annotation: Makes the case for historical case studies and describes how to develop them.

Broad Topical Focus: Curriculum Inquiry Guidelines, Curriculum Research Domains and Structure
Source Discipline: Curriculum
Mode of Inquiry in the Study: Historical Inquiry
Type of Study: Single Study
Narrow Topic: Curriculum History, Practical Knowledge, Curriculum Deliberation, Curriculum Development Strategies, Knowledge Generation

Wise, Robert I., "The Use of Objectives in Curriculum Planning: A Critique of Planning by Objectives," Curriculum Theory Network, 5( No. 4, 1976), 280-289.*, Robert I. Wise

Annotation: Examines the claim that "Planning by Objectives" makes for better plans by clarifying what stating objectives may or may not do for someone planning instruction.

Broad Topical Focus: Curriculum Development, Organization, Design
Source Discipline: Curriculum
Mode of Inquiry in the Study: Philosophical Inquiry-Ampliative Criticism
Type of Study: Single Study
Narrow Topic: Curriculum Aims and Objectives

Wixson, Karen K, Elizabeth Dutro, and Ruth G. Athan, "The Challenge of Developing Content Standards," pp. 69-107 in Robert E. Floden, ed., Review of Research in Education, 27: 2003. Washington, DC: American Educational Research Association, 2004.*, Karen K. Wixson, Elizabeth Dutro, and Ruth G. Athan

Annotation: Traces the history of the entire content standards movement, with special attention to the English language arts, both state and national influences.

Broad Topical Focus: Curriculum Development, Organization, Design, Curriculum Policies and Policy Making
Source Discipline: Curriculum
Mode of Inquiry in the Study: Integrative Inquiry, Historical Inquiry
Type of Study: Research Synthesis
Narrow Topic: Content Selection and Organization, Curriculum Standards and Testing, English, Freedom/Authority and Curriculum, Government Role in Educational Research & Development, Value Assumptions and Ideologies in Curriculum

Wolcott, Harry F., "Differing Styles of On-Site Research, or, 'If it Isn't Ethnography, What is it?' " Review Journal of Philosophy and Social Science, 7(No. 1 & 2, 1982), 154-169.*, Harry F. Wolcott

Annotation: Explains different styles of on-site research and ethnography and lists fourteen types together with a select bibliography of each type.

Broad Topical Focus: Curriculum Inquiry Guidelines
Source Discipline: Education
Mode of Inquiry in the Study: Ethnographic Inquiry
Type of Study: Single Study
Narrow Topic: Knowledge Generation, Comparisons Among Inquiry Modes

Wolcott, Harry F., "On Seeking--and Rejecting--Validity in Qualitative Research," pp. 121-173 in Elliot W. Eisner and Alan Peshkin, eds., Qualitative Inquiry in Education: The Continuing Debate. New York: Teachers College Press, 1990., Harry F. Wolcott

Annotation: Considers the role of validity in qualitative inquiry.

Broad Topical Focus: Curriculum Inquiry Guidelines
Source Discipline: Education
Mode of Inquiry in the Study: Ethnographic Inquiry
Type of Study: Single Study
Narrow Topic: Knowledge Generation, Qualitative Research

Wolcott, Harry F., "Posturing in Qualitative Inquiry," pp. 3-52 in Margaret D. LeCompte, Wendy L. Millroy, and Judith Preissle, eds., The Handbook of Qualitative Research in Education. San Diego, CA: Academic Press, 1992.*, Harry F. Wolcott

Annotation: Reviews types of qualitative inquiry and the several strategies employed in it, sketches the branches in the tree of qualitative inquiry, and distinguishes among the many varieties of end products (table 1).

Broad Topical Focus: Curriculum Inquiry Guidelines
Source Discipline: Education
Mode of Inquiry in the Study: Ethnographic Inquiry
Type of Study: Single Study
Narrow Topic: Knowledge Generation, Qualitative Research

Wolcott, Harry F., Sneaky Kid and Its Aftermath: Ethics and Intimacy in Fieldwork. Walnut Creek, CA: Altamira Press, 2002., Harry F. Wolcott

Annotation: Traces the issues and implications of the author's involvement with an ethnographic study informant for quality research procedure.

Broad Topical Focus: Curriculum Inquiry Guidelines
Source Discipline: Education
Mode of Inquiry in the Study: Ethnographic Inquiry
Type of Study: Single Study
Narrow Topic: Knowledge Generation, Ethical Issues in Curriculum

Wolcott, Harry F., Teacher Versus Technocrats: An Educational Innovation in Anthropological Perspective. Eugene, OR: Center for Ed. Policy and Management, University of Oregon, 1977., Harry F. Wolcott

Annotation: Provides an evaluation study of a school program using ethnographic methods.

Broad Topical Focus: Curriculum Inquiry Guidelines, Curriculum Evaluation
Source Discipline: Curriculum
Mode of Inquiry in the Study: Ethnographic Inquiry, Evaluative Inquiry
Type of Study: Single Study
Narrow Topic: Conceptions of Teaching

Wolcott, Harry F., The Art of Fieldwork. Walnut Creek, CA: Altamira Press, 1995., Harry F. Wolcott

Annotation: Provides perspective on and methods for doing artful ethnographies.

Broad Topical Focus: Curriculum Inquiry Guidelines
Source Discipline: Field other than Education
Mode of Inquiry in the Study: Ethnographic Inquiry
Type of Study: Single Study
Narrow Topic: Knowledge Generation, Qualitative Research

Wolfe, Michael P., and Caroline R. Pryor, eds., The Mission of a Scholar: Research and Practice: A Tribute to Nelson Haggerson. New York: Peter Lang, 2002, Michael P. Wolfe and Caroline R. Pryor

Annotation: Presents 14 articles on various modes of scholarship (from action research to critical to mytho-poetic, to bigraphical to hermenuetic and more) written in personal and autobiographical form by authors who practice these modes of scholarship; these essays honor Nelson Haggerson as a multifaceted curriculum scholar and bring aspects of his life and work to public view.

Broad Topical Focus: Curriculum Inquiry Guidelines, Curriculum Theorists
Source Discipline: Curriculum
Mode of Inquiry in the Study: Historical Inquiry, Philosophical Inquiry-Speculative Essay, Multiple/Mixed Forms of Inquiry
Type of Study: Collection of Studies
Narrow Topic: Curriculum Theory Creation and Uses, Curriculum as Experience, Knowledge Generation, Curriculum Professors, Comparisons Among Inquiry Modes

Wolf, Fredric M., Meta-Analysis: Quantitative Methods for Research Synthesis. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage, 1986.*, Fredric M. Wolf

Annotation: Summarizes methods used in doing meta-analyses of quantitative research studies, cites illustrative studies, and sets forth criticisms of these methods.

Broad Topical Focus: Curriculum Inquiry Guidelines
Source Discipline: Field other than Education
Mode of Inquiry in the Study: Integrative Inquiry
Type of Study: Research Synthesis
Narrow Topic: Knowledge Generation

Wolf, W. C., Jr., "Beyond the Contributions of Research and Development," Teachers College Record, 77(December, 1975), 247-254., W. C. Wolf Jr.

Annotation: Describes the gaps in a needed system for using research and development in practice.

Broad Topical Focus: Relation of Curriculum Research to Practice, Curriculum Research and Inquiry-General, Critique and Utilization of Curriculum Research and Inquiry
Source Discipline: Education
Mode of Inquiry in the Study: Philosophical Inquiry-Speculative Essay
Type of Study: Single Study
Narrow Topic: Knowledge Utilization

Wolf, W. C., Jr., "Selected Knowledge Diffusion/Utilization Know-How," Knowledge: Creation, Diffusion, Utilization, 2(March, 1981), 331-340., W. C. Wolf Jr.

Annotation: Presents a summary of techniques.

Broad Topical Focus: Critique and Utilization of Curriculum Research and Inquiry
Source Discipline: Education
Mode of Inquiry in the Study: Theoretical/Conceptual Inquiry
Type of Study: Research Synthesis
Narrow Topic: Knowledge Utilization

Wolgemuth, Jennifer R., Tyler Hicks, and Vonzell Agosto, "Unpacking Assumptions in Research Synthesis: A Critical Construct Synthesis Approach," Educational Researcher, 46(April, 2017), 131-139., Jennifer R. Wolgemuth, Tyler Hicks, and Vonzell Agosto

Annotation: Provides guidelines for synthesizing research focusing on the use of critical construct synthesis methods.

Broad Topical Focus: Curriculum Inquiry Guidelines
Source Discipline: Education
Mode of Inquiry in the Study: Integrative Inquiry
Type of Study: Single Study
Narrow Topic: Knowledge Linkage

Wolk, Steven, "Why Go to School?" Phi Delta Kappan, 88(May, 2007), 648-658., Steven Wolk

Annotation: Proposes a curriculum to cover what schools do not teach: to shape self-identity, to acquire a love of learning, to become caring citizens, to see the moral and ecological implications of our actions, to appreciate cultural differences and to heal the social fabric, to assume responsibility for social and planetary well-being, to learn the processes of peace and non-violence, to gain critical media literacy, to enhance our responsibility for global well-being, to exercise creativity and imagination, and to learn how to conduct and maintain meaningful personal and family life.

Broad Topical Focus: Curriculum Proposals in Coherent Form
Source Discipline: Curriculum
Mode of Inquiry in the Study: Philosophical Inquiry-Speculative Essay
Type of Study: Single Study
Narrow Topic: Content Selection and Organization, Curriculum Aims and Objectives

Wong, E. David, "Challenges Confronting the Researcher/Teacher: Conflicts of Purpose and Conduct," Educational Researcher, 24(April, 1995), 22-28., E. David Wong

Annotation: Explains roles of teacher researchers in doing action research in relation to teaching.

Broad Topical Focus: Curriculum Inquiry Guidelines
Source Discipline: Education
Mode of Inquiry in the Study: Action Inquiry
Type of Study: Single Study
Narrow Topic: Knowledge Generation, Teacher Research

Wong, Yew Leong,"Curriculum Making as Design Activity," pp. 141-158 in Bill Green, Philip Robberts, and Marie Brennan, eds., Curriculu Challenges and Opportunities in a Changing World: Transnational Perspectives in Curriculum Inquiry. Palgrave Macmillan, 2021., Yew Leong Wong

Annotation: Describes the design process and its practical uses in planning curriculum; gives examples form Chinese education.

Broad Topical Focus: Curriculum Development, Organization, Design
Source Discipline: Curriculum
Mode of Inquiry in the Study: Development as Inquiry,Theoretical/Conceptual Inquiry
Type of Study: Single Study
Narrow Topic: Comparative Curriculum, Curriculum Development Strategies

Wood, George H., "Beyond Radical Educational Cynicism," Educational Theory, 32(Spring, 1982), 55-71., George H. Wood

Annotation: Explores neo-Marxist thinkers and suggests a more complete line of inquiry.

Broad Topical Focus: Defining Curriculum Research Questions
Source Discipline: Curriculum
Mode of Inquiry in the Study: Critical Inquiry
Type of Study: Single Study
Narrow Topic: Ideology and School Knowledge, Value Assumptions and Ideologies in Curriculum

Wood, George H., "Democracy and the Curriculum," pp. 166-187 in Landon E. Beyer and Michael W. Apple, eds., The Curriculum: Problems, Politics, and Possiblilites . Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1988., George H. Wood

Annotation: Sets forth the ideal of a curriculum for democratic empowerment; discusses several dimensions thereof.

Broad Topical Focus: Curriculum Policies and Policy Making, Curriculum Development, Organization, Design
Source Discipline: Curriculum
Mode of Inquiry in the Study: Philosophical Inquiry-Speculative Essay, Critical Inquiry
Type of Study: Single Study
Narrow Topic: Curriculum as Experience, Democratic Education, Curriculum Aims and Objectives

Wood, George H., "Schooling in a Democracy: Transformation or Reproduction?" Educational Theory, 34(Summer, 1984), 219-239., George H. Wood

Annotation: Analyzes democratic schooling in a corporate environment and calls for schooling that provides for participatory democracy.

Broad Topical Focus: Curriculum Policies and Policy Making
Source Discipline: Curriculum
Mode of Inquiry in the Study: Critical Inquiry
Type of Study: Single Study
Narrow Topic: Value Assumptions and Ideologies in Curriculum, Curriculum Aims and Objectives, Democratic Education, Citizenship Education

Wood, Patricia, "Action Research: A Field Perspective," Journal of Education for Teaching, 14(No. 2, 1988), 135-150.*, Patricia Wood

Annotation: Reports and evaluates the processes involved in a Wisconsin classroom action research project designed to promote cooperation.

Broad Topical Focus: Curriculum Inquiry Guidelines
Source Discipline: Curriculum
Mode of Inquiry in the Study: Action Inquiry
Type of Study: Single Study
Narrow Topic: Knowledge Generation, Classroom Observation & Research

Woods, Peter, "Life Histories and Teacher Knowledge," pp. 121-135 in John Smyth, ed., Educating Teachers: Changing the Nature of Pedagogical Knowledge. Philadelphia: Falmer, 1987.*, Peter Woods

Annotation: Discusses life histories of teachers as a mode of contrasting self-knowledge by teachers; pleads the case for employing ethnographic studies of teachers' life histories to understand how teachers construct their pedagogical knowledge.

Broad Topical Focus: Curriculum Enactment and Teaching, Curriculum Inquiry Guidelines
Source Discipline: Education
Mode of Inquiry in the Study: Phenomenological Inquiry, Narrative Inquiry
Type of Study: Single Study
Narrow Topic: Knowledge Generation, Teacher Knowledge, Comparative Curriculum

Woods, Peter E., Sociology and the School: An Interactionist Viewpoint . London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1983., Peter E. Woods

Annotation: Explains the symbolic interactionist perspective and related research.

Broad Topical Focus: Curriculum Inquiry Guidelines
Source Discipline: Field other than Education
Mode of Inquiry in the Study: Scientific/Empirical Inquiry
Type of Study: Single Study
Narrow Topic: Knowledge Generation

Woods, Peter, and Martyn Hammersley, "School Experience: Explorations in the Sociology of Education," pp. 9-27 in Peter Woods and Martyn Hammersley, eds., School Experience . New York: St. Martin's Press, 1977., Peter Woods and Martyn Hammersley

Annotation: Gives a brief explanation of the work done in the sociology of education and summarizes critical sociological studies in the authors' book.

Broad Topical Focus: Curriculum Enactment and Teaching, Curriculum Inquiry Guidelines
Source Discipline: Curriculum
Mode of Inquiry in the Study: Critical Inquiry
Type of Study: Status Study
Narrow Topic: Knowledge Generation, Hidden Curriculum, Ideology and School Knowledge

Woods, Ronald G., and Robin Barrow, "Curriculum," pp. 23-46 in Ronald G. Woods and Robin Barrow, An Introduction to Philosophy of Education. London: Methuen, 1975., Ronald G. Woods and Robin Barrow

Annotation: Analyzes the nature of knowledge and its relation to curriculum.

Broad Topical Focus: Curriculum Conceptions and Theories,Curriculum Development, Organization, Design
Source Discipline: Curriculum
Mode of Inquiry in the Study: Philosophical Inquiry-Conceptual Analysis
Type of Study: Single Study
Narrow Topic: Knowledge Generation, Curriculum and the Disciplines, Content Selection and Organization

Wraga, William, "Curriculum Theory and Development and Public Policy Making," Journal of Curriculum and Pedagogy, 3(Summer, 2006), 83-87., William Wraga

Annotation: Sets an agenda for the academic curriculum field: renew its commitment to public curriculum matters; provide curriculum leaders with conceptual tools for coping with public curriculum problems; and offer practical recommendations for resolving such problems.

Broad Topical Focus: Curriculum as a Field of Practice and Study, Curriculum Theorists, Relation of Curriculum Research to Practice, Curriculum Policies and Policy Making
Source Discipline: Curriculum
Mode of Inquiry in the Study: Philosophical Inquiry-Speculative Essay, Theoretical/Conceptual Inquiry
Type of Study: Single Study
Narrow Topic: Curriculum Theory Creation and Uses, Curriculum Professors, Professionalization in Curriculum, Curriculum and Politics, Knowledge Linkage

Wraga, William, The Historical U. S. Cuirriculum Field's Sense of the Past," Curriculum History, (2018), 19-28., William Wraga

Annotation: Challenges the idea expressed in the 1960s and 1970s that the curriculum field was ahistorical; examines ten curriculum publications from 1918 to 1964 that give serious attention to the history of curriculum and curriculum making.

Broad Topical Focus: Curriculum as a Field of Practice and Study
Source Discipline: Curriculum
Mode of Inquiry in the Study: Historical Inquiry, Philosophical Inquiry-Ampliative Criticism
Type of Study: Single Study
Narrow Topic: Curriculum History, Literature of Curriculum

Wraga, William G., "A Century of Interdisciplinary Curricula in American Schools," pp. 117-145 in Peter S. Hlebowitsh and William G. Wraga, eds., Annual Review of Research for School Leaders. New York: Scholastic (NASSP), 1996., William G. Wraga

Annotation: Traces the use of interdisciplinary curricula historically in American schools with references from 1895-1993.

Broad Topical Focus: Curriculum Development, Organization, Design
Source Discipline: Curriculum
Mode of Inquiry in the Study: Historical Inquiry
Type of Study: Single Study
Narrow Topic: Curriculum History, Curriculum Integration, Curriculum and the Disciplines

Wraga, William G., "A Historical Reconstruction of the Work of the National Society for the Study of Education's Committee on Curriculum-Making," Journal of Curriculum Studies, 48(Issue 5, 2016), 565-588., William G. Wraga

Annotation: Presents a detailed study of the Committee and its work between 1924 and the publication of its report in the 1927 NSSE Yearbook; reconsiders whether it actually came to a consensus on principles of curriculum-making as its report says was its purpose; reactions found in later curriculum texts and by later professors are included.

Broad Topical Focus: Curriculum Decision-making Processes, Curriculum Development, Organization, Design
Source Discipline: Curriculum
Mode of Inquiry in the Study: Historical Inquiry
Type of Study: Single Study
Narrow Topic: Curriculum History, Curriculum Development Strategies, Curriculum Professors

Wraga, William G., "A Progressive Legacy Squandered: The Cardinal Principles Report Reconsidered," History of Education Quarterly, 41(Winter, 2001), 494-519.*, William G. Wraga

Annotation: Corrects Krug's interpretation of the Cardinal Principles Reports based on rereading the evidence.

Broad Topical Focus: Curriculum Development, Organization, Design, Critique and Utilization of Curriculum Research and Inquiry
Source Discipline: Curriculum
Mode of Inquiry in the Study: Historical Inquiry
Type of Study: Single Study
Narrow Topic: Classics of Curriculum Literature, Secondary School Curriculum

Wraga, William G., "Arresting the Decline in Integrity of Curriculum Studies in the United States," pp. 99-110 in Joao M. Paraskeva and Shirley R. Steinberg, eds., Curriculum: Decanonizing the Field. New York: Peter Lang, 2016., William G. Wraga

Annotation: Argues that the scholarly field of Curriculum Studies has lost its integrity because it has focused on theoretical issues rather than on the needs of its constituents to enhance 1) curriculum development and the insights of curriculum practice, 2) the experiences of students, and 3) curriculum policy.

Broad Topical Focus: Curriculum as a Field of Practice and Study
Source Discipline: Curriculum
Mode of Inquiry in the Study: Philosophical Inquiry-Ampliative Criticism
Type of Study: Status Study
Narrow Topic: Curriculum Development Strategies, Curriculum Theory Creation and Uses, Curriculum History, Curriculum Professors, Knowledge Generation

Wraga, William G., Democracy's High School: The Comprehensive High School and Educational Reform in the United States. Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 1994., William G. Wraga

Annotation: Presents a history of the comprehensive high school in the United States, its unique contribution to democratic education, its rise and waning as a unitary cosmopolitan model for the high school, the forces opposing and supporting it in contemporary schooling, and recommendations for enhancing its efficacy and vitality.

Broad Topical Focus: Curriculum Development, Organization, Design, Curriculum Policies and Policy Making, Curriculum Visions and Philosophies
Source Discipline: Curriculum
Mode of Inquiry in the Study: Historical Inquiry
Type of Study: Single Study
Narrow Topic: Curriculum History, Content Selection and Organization

Wraga, William G., " 'Extracting Sun-Beams out of Curriculum': The Retreat from Practice in Reconceptualized Curriculum Studies," Educational Researcher, 28 (January-February, 1999), 4-13.*, William G. Wraga

Annotation: Discusses theory-practice split attibuted to the reconceptualists; a response by Pinar and a rejoinder by Wraga follows.

Broad Topical Focus: Curriculum Conceptions and Theories, Curriculum Theorists, Curriculum as a Field of Practice and Study, Relation of Curriculum Research to Practice
Source Discipline: Curriculum
Mode of Inquiry in the Study: Philosophical Inquiry-Speculative Essay
Type of Study: Status Study
Narrow Topic: Curriculum History

Wraga, William G., "From Slogan to Anathema: Historical Representations of Life Adjustment Education," American Journal of Education, 116(February, 2010), 185-210., William G. Wraga

Annotation: Examines the different interpretations of Life Adjustment Education by educational historians pre- and post- 1980; notes overlooked rationales for its existence and contemporary circumstances where it may still be applicable.

Broad Topical Focus: Curriculum Proposals in Coherent Form
Source Discipline: Curriculum
Mode of Inquiry in the Study: Historical Inquiry, Philosophical Inquiry-Ampliative Criticism
Type of Study: Single Study
Narrow Topic: Curriculum Aims and Objectives, Curriculum History

Wraga, William G., " 'Interesting, if True' : Historical Perspectives on the 'Reconceptualization' of Curriculum Studies," Journal of Curriuculum and Supervision, 14(Fall,1998), 5-28.*, William G. Wraga

Annotation: Critiques the reconceptualist movement in curriculum with respect to its ahistoricism and its ideology.

Broad Topical Focus: Curriculum Conceptions and Theories, Curriculum Theorists, Inquiry Language in Curriculum Research, Curriculum Inquiry Guidelines, Curriculum Contexts and Societal Influences, Curriculum as a Field of Practice and Study
Source Discipline: Curriculum
Mode of Inquiry in the Study: Philosophical Inquiry-Ampliative Criticism
Type of Study: Single Study
Narrow Topic: Classics of Curriculum Literature, Curriculum History, Value Assumptions and Ideologies in Curriculum

Wraga, William G., "Performance Assessment: A Golden Opportunity to Improve the Future," NASSP Bulletin, 78(September, 1994), 71-79., William G. Wraga

Annotation: Draws lessons from the past for improving performance assessment of students.

Broad Topical Focus: Curriculum Enactment and Teaching
Source Discipline: Curriculum
Mode of Inquiry in the Study: Historical Inquiry
Type of Study: Single Study
Narrow Topic: Curriculum History, Student Assessment

Wraga, William G., "Progressive Pioneer: Alexander James Inglis (1879-1924) and American Secondary Education," Teachers College Record, 108(June, 2006),1080-1105., William G. Wraga

Annotation: Presents Inglis' contributions to secondary education and analyzes them in relation to four interpretations of prgressivism offered by educational historians; places Inglis among pedagogical progressives.

Broad Topical Focus: Curriculum Theorists, Curriculum Development, Organization, Design
Source Discipline: Curriculum
Mode of Inquiry in the Study: Historical Inquiry
Type of Study: Single Study
Narrow Topic: Curriculum History, Secondary School Curriculum, Value Assumptions and Ideologies in Curriculum

Wraga, William G., "The Cardinal Principles Report Revisited," Education and Culture (formerly Current Issues in Education), 11(Fall, 1994), 6-16., William G. Wraga

Annotation: Discusses the 1918 Cardinal Principles report around issues of social efficiency, tracking, and the common school ideal.

Broad Topical Focus: Curriculum Policies and Policy Making, Curriculum Development, Organization, Design
Source Discipline: Curriculum
Mode of Inquiry in the Study: Historical Inquiry
Type of Study: Single Study
Narrow Topic: Curriculum History, Classics of Curriculum Literature, Social Efficiency/Control, Curriculum Differentiation

Wraga, William G., "The Comprehensive High School Revisited: Issues of Development and Dissemination," Curriculum History, (March, 1998), 73-85.*, William G. Wraga

Annotation: Taces the development of the comprehensive high school from 1905-1930.

Broad Topical Focus: Curriculum Development, Organization, Design
Source Discipline: Curriculum
Mode of Inquiry in the Study: Historical Inquiry
Type of Study: Single Study
Narrow Topic: Secondary School Curriculum, Curriculum History

Wraga, William G., "The Educational and Political Implications of Curriculum Alignment and Standards-Based Reform," Journal of Curriculum and Supervision, 15(Fall, 1999), 4-25., William G. Wraga

Annotation: Analyzes and critiques F. W. English's curriculum alignment approach and its relation to reform through standards and testing; related article by A. A. Glatthorn follows.

Broad Topical Focus: Curriculum Policies and Policy Making, Curriculum Evaluation, Curriculum Development, Organization, Design
Source Discipline: Curriculum
Mode of Inquiry in the Study: Philosophical Inquiry-Ampliative Criticism
Type of Study: Single Study
Narrow Topic: Curriculum and the Disciplines, Curriculum Standards and Testing, Curriculum Frameworks